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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

changes in immunological, inflammatory, and hormonal parameters that can be measured at rest, over the course of a day, or in response to acute exercise ( Gleeson, 2002 ; Kellmann, 2010 ; Meeusen et al., 2013 ). Although the effects of a high volume of training have been well described in young adults

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Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Eduardo da Matta Mello Portugal, Luiz Felipe da Silva Figueiredo, Rodrigo Terra, Lara S. F. Carneiro, Vinícius Dias Rodrigues, Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento, Andrea Camaz Deslandes and Jerson Laks

The imbalance in the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors has been associated with various chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. It is well known that all these processes are also associated with age. 1 However, the aging of the

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Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Eva Mengel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt and Jaak Jürimäe

have shown that increased levels of inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP)] are associated with increased risk of developing coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, including an increased risk of developing depression and psychosis later in life ( 6 , 13 , 22

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Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Because of the strong association between cardiovascular diseases and morbidity, mortality, and high public health expenditures, 1 , 2 reductions in cardiovascular risk factors, such as improvements in lipid profiles and inflammatory markers, are therapeutic targets in numerous health studies 3

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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

beneficial anti-inflammatory effects; evidence from epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated an inverse association between physical activity and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation. 3 – 5 The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise may partly explain the well-documented cardioprotective

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Eric P. Plaisance, J. Kyle Taylor, Sofiya Alhassan, Asheber Abebe, Michael L. Mestek and Peter W. Grandjean

Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and white-blood-cell (WBC) count are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. The authors’ purpose was to compare the inflammatory response to a single aerobic-exercise session between individuals of high and moderate fitness. Ten apparently healthy highly ft and 11 moderately ft men expended 500 kcal at 70% of VO2peak. Fasting blood samples were obtained on 2 consecutive days before and again at 24, 72, and 120 h post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC count. CRP was 76% lower at baseline in the highly ft group than in the moderately ft group (P = 0.03). CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC count remained unaltered, however, in the days after exercise (P > 0.05 for all). These findings suggest that markers of inflammation are stable in the days after a single session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in apparently healthy men of at least average fitness.

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has become a major public health concern. In fact, obesity is associated with a variety of inflammatory disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), hypertension, and development of atherosclerosis, which are risk factors for cardiovascular

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Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas, Mariana Rotta Bonfim, Bruna Camilo Turi, Nair Cristina Margarida Brondino and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

Background:

Declines in ovarian function in postmenopausal women may contribute to increase inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to chronic diseases. However, studies have shown that exercise interventions are important to manage inflammatory conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise intervention on inflammatory markers among obese and postmenopausal women.

Methods:

70 women composed the sample (Exercise group [EG; n = 35] and nonexercise group [nEG; n = 35]). IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were the inflammatory markers analyzed. Exercise program was 20 weeks long and consisted of aerobic and neuromuscular training. Data about chronic diseases, medication use, dietary intake, body composition and biochemical variables were collected.

Results:

EG showed significant reductions in body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage, as well as increased lean body mass. EG showed significant reductions in TNF-α and significant interaction between group and intervention time. Reductions in IL-10 were identified only in nEG. Substantial effect of exercise intervention was observed with increased ratio of IL-10/IL-6 and IL-10/TNF-α.

Conclusions:

Combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training was effective in reducing inflammation. Thus, implementation and maintenance of similar exercise programs can contribute to reduce chronic inflammation among obese postmenopausal women.

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Luciano A. Silva, Paulo C.L Silveira, Cléber A. Pinho, Talita Tuon, Felipe Dal Pizzol and Ricardo A. Pinho

The objective of the study was to verify the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation on parameters of oxidative damage and inflammatory response after high-intensity eccentric exercise (EE). 29 participants with a mean age of 21.3 ± 4 yr, weight of 74.5 ± 7.7 kg, and height of 177.2 ± 6.9 cm were selected and divided randomly into 3 groups: placebo (21 days; n = 8), NAC (21 days; n = 9), and NAC plus placebo (14 days; n = 8). Four participants withdrew from the study for personal reasons. 14 days after starting supplementation, the participants performed EE: 3 sets until exhaustion (elbow flexion and extension on the Scott bench, 80% 1RM). Blood samples were collected before and on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day after EE. Muscle soreness (MS), lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation, tumor-necrosis factor-cc(TNF-(), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were determined. Results showed a significant increase in MS in all the groups on the 2nd day after EE and a decrease in the following days. A significant increase was observed in malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels on the 4th and 7th days after EE in all groups. TNF-EEincreased significantly on the 2nd day after eccentric exercise and decreased in the following days irrespective of NAC supplementation; concentration of IL-10 increased significantly on the 4th day in all groups. Only the supplemented groups maintained high levels of IL-10 on the 7th day after EE. The results suggest that treatment with NAC represents an important factor in the defense against muscle soreness and has different effects on oxidative damage and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

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Elaine M. Murtagh, Colin Boreham, Alan Nevill, Gareth Davison, Tom Trinick, Ellie Duly, Mawloud El-Agnaf and Marie H. Murphy

Background:

Markers of inflammation are emerging as novel indices of cardiovascular risk. These markers have been shown to alter acutely after intense exercise; however, the effects of more moderate intensity exercise in healthy individuals is not known. Walking forms a cornerstone of physical activity promotion, so the inflammatory response to this exercise merits investigation. This study evaluated the effects of a 45-min walk on C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), in sedentary, overweight men.

Methods:

Fifteen men (49.7 ± 5.9 y) walked for 45 min at 60 to 70% of predicted maximum heart rate. Fasted blood samples were taken prior to and immediately 1 hr and 24 h post-walk.

Results:

IL-6 decreased from 1 h post-walk to 24 h post-walk (P < 0.01). No significant changes were observed in CRP.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that 45 min walking at 60 to 70% HRmax-p causes a decrease in IL-6 24 h post-exercise, but does not evoke a significant response in CRP levels.