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Eric P. Plaisance, J. Kyle Taylor, Sofiya Alhassan, Asheber Abebe, Michael L. Mestek and Peter W. Grandjean

Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and white-blood-cell (WBC) count are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. The authors’ purpose was to compare the inflammatory response to a single aerobic-exercise session between individuals of high and moderate fitness. Ten apparently healthy highly ft and 11 moderately ft men expended 500 kcal at 70% of VO2peak. Fasting blood samples were obtained on 2 consecutive days before and again at 24, 72, and 120 h post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC count. CRP was 76% lower at baseline in the highly ft group than in the moderately ft group (P = 0.03). CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC count remained unaltered, however, in the days after exercise (P > 0.05 for all). These findings suggest that markers of inflammation are stable in the days after a single session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in apparently healthy men of at least average fitness.

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Luciano A. Silva, Paulo C.L Silveira, Cléber A. Pinho, Talita Tuon, Felipe Dal Pizzol and Ricardo A. Pinho

The objective of the study was to verify the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation on parameters of oxidative damage and inflammatory response after high-intensity eccentric exercise (EE). 29 participants with a mean age of 21.3 ± 4 yr, weight of 74.5 ± 7.7 kg, and height of 177.2 ± 6.9 cm were selected and divided randomly into 3 groups: placebo (21 days; n = 8), NAC (21 days; n = 9), and NAC plus placebo (14 days; n = 8). Four participants withdrew from the study for personal reasons. 14 days after starting supplementation, the participants performed EE: 3 sets until exhaustion (elbow flexion and extension on the Scott bench, 80% 1RM). Blood samples were collected before and on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day after EE. Muscle soreness (MS), lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation, tumor-necrosis factor-cc(TNF-(), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were determined. Results showed a significant increase in MS in all the groups on the 2nd day after EE and a decrease in the following days. A significant increase was observed in malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels on the 4th and 7th days after EE in all groups. TNF-EEincreased significantly on the 2nd day after eccentric exercise and decreased in the following days irrespective of NAC supplementation; concentration of IL-10 increased significantly on the 4th day in all groups. Only the supplemented groups maintained high levels of IL-10 on the 7th day after EE. The results suggest that treatment with NAC represents an important factor in the defense against muscle soreness and has different effects on oxidative damage and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

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Irena Auersperger, Bojan Knap, Ales Jerin, Rok Blagus, Mitja Lainscak, Milan Skitek and Branko Skof

Exercise-associated iron deficiency is a common disorder in endurance athletes. The authors investigated the effects of long-term endurance exercise on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in moderately trained female long-distance runners. Eighteen runners were assigned to either an interval- or a continuous-training exercise group. The physical training consisted of two 3-week progressive overload periods, each followed by a week’s recovery, and concluded with a 10- or 21-km competitive run. Samples were taken 6 times during the 8-wk training program, first at baseline (BPre), then after the first and second 3-wk training loads (TPost1, TPost2), after each recovery week (Recovery1 and Recovery2), and poststudy (BPost). Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were increased in Recovery2 and BPost compared with BPre (p = .02), hemoglobin decreased in TPost1 and TPost2 (p < .001), and red blood cells decreased in TPost2 (p = .01). Hepcidin decreased with time in TPost1 and in BPost compared with BPre (p < .001) and increased in TPost2 compared with TPost1 (p < .001). No differences over time were found for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The main findings of the current study indicate that serum hepcidin and sTfR were affected after 8 weeks of endurance running in women. No positive relation was found with inflammation.

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Samantha K. Gill, Dean M. Allerton, Paula Ansley-Robson, Krystal Hemmings, Martin Cox and Ricardo J.S. Costa

The study aimed to determine if short-term high dose probiotic supplementation containing Lactobacillus casei (L.casei) attenuates the commonly reported exertional-heat stress (EHS) induced endotoxinaemia and cytokinaemia. Eight endurance trained male volunteers (mean± SD: age 26 ± 6 y, nude body mass 70.2 ± 8.8 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.05 m, VO2max 59 ± 5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed a blinded randomized cross-over design, whereby oral ingestion of a commercially available probiotic beverage containing L.casei (volume equivalent for ×1011 colony forming units·day-1) (PRO) or placebo (PLA) was consumed for 7 consecutive days before exposure to EHS, which comprised of 2h running exercise at 60% VO2max in hot ambient conditions (34.0 °C and 32% RH). Blood samples were collected at baseline (7 days before EHS), pre-EHS, post-EHS (1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, and at 24 hr). Plasma samples were analyzed for gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, cytokine profile (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-8, and IL-10) and plasma osmolality. Plasma osmolality did not differ between trials. Seven days of L.casei supplementation did not show significant changes in resting circulatory endotoxin concentration or plasma cytokine profile compared with PLA. A main effect of time was observed for IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-8; whereby levels increased in response to EHS (p < .05). Relative to pre-EHS concentrations, higher plasma concentrations of endotoxin (p = .05), and a trend for higher plasma TNF-α concentration (p = .09) was observed on PRO compared with PLA throughout recovery. Short-term high dose supplementation of a probiotic beverage containing L.casei before EHS did not attenuate EHS induced endotoxaemia and cytokinaemia; nor is it more positively favorable over a placebo.

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Francisco J. Ordonez, Gabriel Fornieles-Gonzalez, Alejandra Camacho, Miguel A. Rosety, Ignacio Rosety, Antonio J. Diaz and Manuel Rosety-Rodriguez

Recent studies have reported that obese young people with Down syndrome suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. Whereas this condition may be improved in the general population by regular exercise, the problem has received no attention in the case of people with intellectual disability. Therefore, the authors’ aim was to assess the influence of aerobic training on plasma adipokines in obese women with Down syndrome. Twenty obese young women with Down syndrome volunteered for this study, 11 of whom were randomly assigned to a 10-wk aerobic-training program. They attended 3 sessions/wk, which consisted of warm-up exercises followed by the main activity on a treadmill (30–40 min) at a work intensity of 55–65% of peak heart rate and ended with a cooling-down period. The control group included 9 women with Down syndrome matched for age, sex, and body-mass index. Fat-mass percentage and distribution were measured, and plasma adipokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were assessed. In addition, each participant performed a maximal graded continuous treadmill exercise test. These parameters were assessed pre- and postintervention. Aerobic training produced a significant increase in participants’ maximal oxygen uptake (20.2 ± 5.8 vs.23.7 ± 6.3 ml · kg−1 · min−1; p < .001), and plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced in the intervention group (54.2 ± 6.7 vs.45.7 ± 6.1 ng/ml; p = .026). Further significant correlations between plasma leptin and indices of obesity were found. In contrast, no significant changes were found in adiponectin levels (p > .05). None of the tested parameters changed in the control group. In conclusion, a 10-week training program reduced leptin levels in obese young women with Down syndrome.

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Anna Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Lucja Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Piotr Basta, Ewa Deskur-Smielecka, Donata Woitas-Slubowska and Zdzislaw Adach

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant superoxide dismutase extract (GliSODin) supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. The double-blinded study included 19 members of the Polish rowing team who were participating in a preparatory camp. Subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 10), who received 2 capsules (500 mg) of GliSODin extract once daily for 6 weeks, or the placebo group (n = 9). At the beginning and end of the study, subjects performed a 2,000-m maximum-effort test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-hr restitution period. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and concentrations of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances. In addition, creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were measured in serum. After supplementation, SOD activity was significantly higher (p = .0037) in the supplemented group than the placebo group, and C-reactive protein was significantly (p = .00001) lower in athletes receiving GliSODin than those in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplementation with an extract rich in SOD activity promoted antioxidant status and protected against increased inflammation in the serum of professional rowers but had no effect on oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.

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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

review of musculoskeletal injuries noted that courses of progression of injury and secondary inflammatory response in EIMD and in direct muscle trauma (ie, IIMD) were divergent. 16 Furthermore, Merrick 16 noted that EIMD theory may not apply to muscle damage following blunt force trauma. These findings

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

may help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively without performance impediments. These supplements include creatine monohydrate, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and anti-inflammatory supplements such as curcumin or tart cherry

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

performance may result from increases in blood flow, while training adaptations may be influenced by alterations in cellular signaling and faster recovery through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory pathways. Acknowledgments The manuscript preparation was undertaken by M.D. Cook and M.E.T. Willems. Both

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

proteins increase chronically during recovery and are involved in the inflammatory acute phase response. In response to an acute immunological challenge, such as exercise stress, cells of the immune system must be able to grow and proliferate to generate effector cells producing specific molecules