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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

changes in immunological, inflammatory, and hormonal parameters that can be measured at rest, over the course of a day, or in response to acute exercise ( Gleeson, 2002 ; Kellmann, 2010 ; Meeusen et al., 2013 ). Although the effects of a high volume of training have been well described in young adults

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Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Eduardo da Matta Mello Portugal, Luiz Felipe da Silva Figueiredo, Rodrigo Terra, Lara S. F. Carneiro, Vinícius Dias Rodrigues, Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento, Andrea Camaz Deslandes and Jerson Laks

The imbalance in the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors has been associated with various chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. It is well known that all these processes are also associated with age. 1 However, the aging of the

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Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Because of the strong association between cardiovascular diseases and morbidity, mortality, and high public health expenditures, 1 , 2 reductions in cardiovascular risk factors, such as improvements in lipid profiles and inflammatory markers, are therapeutic targets in numerous health studies 3

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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

beneficial anti-inflammatory effects; evidence from epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated an inverse association between physical activity and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation. 3 – 5 The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise may partly explain the well-documented cardioprotective

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Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas, Mariana Rotta Bonfim, Bruna Camilo Turi, Nair Cristina Margarida Brondino and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

Background:

Declines in ovarian function in postmenopausal women may contribute to increase inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to chronic diseases. However, studies have shown that exercise interventions are important to manage inflammatory conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise intervention on inflammatory markers among obese and postmenopausal women.

Methods:

70 women composed the sample (Exercise group [EG; n = 35] and nonexercise group [nEG; n = 35]). IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were the inflammatory markers analyzed. Exercise program was 20 weeks long and consisted of aerobic and neuromuscular training. Data about chronic diseases, medication use, dietary intake, body composition and biochemical variables were collected.

Results:

EG showed significant reductions in body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage, as well as increased lean body mass. EG showed significant reductions in TNF-α and significant interaction between group and intervention time. Reductions in IL-10 were identified only in nEG. Substantial effect of exercise intervention was observed with increased ratio of IL-10/IL-6 and IL-10/TNF-α.

Conclusions:

Combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training was effective in reducing inflammation. Thus, implementation and maintenance of similar exercise programs can contribute to reduce chronic inflammation among obese postmenopausal women.

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Elaine M. Murtagh, Colin Boreham, Alan Nevill, Gareth Davison, Tom Trinick, Ellie Duly, Mawloud El-Agnaf and Marie H. Murphy

Background:

Markers of inflammation are emerging as novel indices of cardiovascular risk. These markers have been shown to alter acutely after intense exercise; however, the effects of more moderate intensity exercise in healthy individuals is not known. Walking forms a cornerstone of physical activity promotion, so the inflammatory response to this exercise merits investigation. This study evaluated the effects of a 45-min walk on C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), in sedentary, overweight men.

Methods:

Fifteen men (49.7 ± 5.9 y) walked for 45 min at 60 to 70% of predicted maximum heart rate. Fasted blood samples were taken prior to and immediately 1 hr and 24 h post-walk.

Results:

IL-6 decreased from 1 h post-walk to 24 h post-walk (P < 0.01). No significant changes were observed in CRP.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that 45 min walking at 60 to 70% HRmax-p causes a decrease in IL-6 24 h post-exercise, but does not evoke a significant response in CRP levels.

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Mette S. Nielsen, Jonas S. Quist, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Stine-Mathilde Dalskov, Camilla T. Damsgaard, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Kim F. Michaelsen, Anders Sjödin and Mads F. Hjorth

Background:

Inflammatory markers, adiponectin, and movement/nonmovement behaviors have all been linked to risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, the association between childhood movement/nonmovement behaviors and inflammatory markers and adiponectin is unknown.

Methods:

We explored the association between accelerometer determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and sleep (7 days/8 nights) and fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin in 806 school children. A sleep variability score was calculated.

Results:

MVPA was negatively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (P < .001) and with CRP and IL-6 in girls (P < .05) independent of sleep duration, sedentary time, age, fat mass index (FMI), and pubertal status. Sedentary time was positively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (both P < .001), and sleep duration with adiponectin in boys independent of age, FMI, and pubertal status (P < .001); however, these associations disappeared after mutual adjustments for movement behavior. Sleep duration variability was positively associated with CRP in girls independent of all covariates (P < .01).

Conclusion:

MVPA remained negatively associated with inflammatory markers and adiponectin, and sleep duration variability positively associated with CRP after adjustment for FMI, pubertal status, and other movement behavior. The inverse association between MVPA and adiponectin conflicts with the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin.

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

levels, and inflammatory cytokines; therefore, the regular practice of combined exercise has been considered of great importance for ILWHA. 7 , 8 In spite of the popularity of combined training, the acute immunological responses elicited by this type of exercise has not been completely elucidated in

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Jacob D. Meyer, Mary S. Hayney, Christopher L. Coe, Cameron L. Ninos and Bruce P. Barrett

Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of inflammatory processes in the progression from health to illness. Elevated inflammatory indicators are associated with both physiological and psychological disturbance, including chronic stress ( Libby, 2002 , 2007 ; Miller, Maletic, & Raison

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Tom Clifford

effects by NSAIDS, protein, or AOX supplementation. AOX = antioxidant; NSAIDS = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; MPB = muscle protein breakdown; MPS = muscle protein synthesis. Studies have also suggested that older adults experience greater levels of muscle soreness than younger adults after