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Stephen Dobson and Bill Gerrard

Unlike most major U.S. sport teams, it is common for professional soccer clubs around the world to trade players for cash. This article develops a model of the player-transfer market in soccer in which observed transfer fees are determined by player characteristics, selling-club characteristics, buying-club characteristics, and time effects. The model is based on data on 1,350 transfer fees in English professional soccer from June 1990 to August 1996. The estimated model is used to investigate the rate of inflation in transfer fees. In addition, the determination of transfer fees is considered within different segments of the transfer market. It is found that the determination of transfer fees differs markedly among segments.

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Ryan King-White and Adam Beissel

today’s dollars, adjusting for inflation) stand-alone 6,000 seat football stadium (Minnegan Field) would be constructed ( Binns, 1976 ; Gounaris, 1978 ). Given these ‘cosmetic’ changes, some stakeholder groups began calling for the athletics programs to move up to Division II for football and Division

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John Wong and Scott R. Jedlicka

provide a suitable NHL rink “comparable to those or better than those presently in existence in the current NHL cities.” 27 By comparison, the highest franchise fees during the 1920s NHL expansion were $50,000, the inflation-adjusted equivalent of nearly $92,000 in 1967. 28 For Vancouver, the NHL

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Kyle Bunds and Jonathan Casper

pollution is one of the three things they are most concerned about ( Kenyon, 2017 ). As Kenyon reports “this is up from 26% in 2011 and is now the #3 concern behind ‘money enough to live right and pay the bills’ (36% in 2016) and ‘inflation and high prices’” (35% in 2016). As noted above, there is good

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Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir

analysis; sport enjoyment was the outcome variable for the second regression analysis. Before running the regression analyses we checked for multicollinearity. Multicollinearity was not evident in the regression equations as tolerance was > .10 for all variables and the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) was

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Jan Haut, Freya Gassmann, Eike Emrich, Tim Meyer and Christian Pierdzioch

gives some indication that success only has relative impact, and additional factors are strongly affecting the image of athletes and nations, too: For less successful countries, a single gold medal may increase international attention strongly, while more frequent winning may lead to inflation, i

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Bryan E. Denham

interactions. The study checked for multicollinearity using variance inflation factors (VIFs), requiring the VIF for each independent variable to appear between 1.0 and 10.0. For the second set of analyses, the study included sports in which members of racial and ethnic minorities did and did not participate

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Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame J.A. Agyemang

recession that began in the mid to late 1970s. High unemployment and inflation and rising debt from shrinking tax bases extended into the 1980s. 75 Resultantly, many cities increased their fees for “city services such as police, garbage collection, and fire and ambulance standbys”, which were necessary for

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Jonathan A. Jensen and T. Bettina Cornwell

: growth in gross national income (GNI) per capita and growth in inflation (as reflected by the CPI). The GNI is an accepted measure of economic growth on a global and domestic basis (e.g., Barro, 1991 ) and is available for all leading global economies. To assess trends related to GNI in each sponsor

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Peter F. Bodary and M. Melissa Gross

determine which path to take. Grade Inflation? Or More and Deeper Learning Experiences? In our collective experience in using this gameful strategy, we have observed an increase in our overall course grades. At first blush, this struck fear in our minds about introducing a source of grade inflation. However