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Chris Chard

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Molly Hayes Sauder and Michael Mudrick

independent variables as variance inflation factors ranged from 1.27 to 2.40. Concern over multicollinearity would be warranted if the largest variance inflation factor is greater than 10 or if the average variance inflation factor is substantially greater than one ( Field, 2013 ). To examine this research

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Stephen Dobson and Bill Gerrard

Unlike most major U.S. sport teams, it is common for professional soccer clubs around the world to trade players for cash. This article develops a model of the player-transfer market in soccer in which observed transfer fees are determined by player characteristics, selling-club characteristics, buying-club characteristics, and time effects. The model is based on data on 1,350 transfer fees in English professional soccer from June 1990 to August 1996. The estimated model is used to investigate the rate of inflation in transfer fees. In addition, the determination of transfer fees is considered within different segments of the transfer market. It is found that the determination of transfer fees differs markedly among segments.

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Jonathan A. Jensen and T. Bettina Cornwell

: growth in gross national income (GNI) per capita and growth in inflation (as reflected by the CPI). The GNI is an accepted measure of economic growth on a global and domestic basis (e.g., Barro, 1991 ) and is available for all leading global economies. To assess trends related to GNI in each sponsor

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Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

.047 .316 1.023  Attitude toward team/athlete – – −0.053 .267 1.060 Note. VIF = variance inflation factor. Method: stepwise; dependent variable: brand attention; cases included in the model: 323; model fit: F  = 49.135 ( p  < .001), R 2  = .316. The model turned out to be highly significant ( F  = 49

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Adrien Bouchet, Thomas W. Doellman, Mike Troilo and Brian R. Walkup

, where a direct competitor is determined by the relative size of the two sponsors involved in the deal. The largest sponsoring firms in the sample, which are referred to as the “Goliaths,” include companies with a market capitalization (inflation adjusted in 2010 U.S. dollars) of $10 billion at the time

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T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh

correlations are significant at p  < .05, except where noted: * p  > .05, nonsignificant. Sponsor Recall Because regression parameter estimation will be biased in the event of substantial multicollinearity between the independent variables, we assessed the variation inflation index values. All variation

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Colin D. McLaren and Kevin S. Spink

conflict and, to a lesser degree, with information-exchange communication (see Table  1 for correlations). As such, a decision was made to remove this communication type from further analyses to reduce redundancy in the regression equation and avoid the artificial inflation of standard errors ( Tabachnick

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Alison Doherty and Graham Cuskelly

detected. We also reviewed collinearity statistics prior to the interpretation of the regression results; tolerance values of 0.01 or less and variance inflation factor scores over 10.0 would be indicative of multicollinearity among the variables ( Tabachnik & Fidell, 2012 ). Results Organizational

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Liz Wanless and Jeffrey L. Stinson

totaled $390.05 billion, a 2.7% increase from 2015. Individual donations accounted for $281.86 billion in giving in 2016, up 3.9% (2.6% after accounting for inflation). Given that the revenue stream is already a substantial provider to intercollegiate athletic budgets, given that it shows unique potential