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Roberta L. Pohlman and Larry D. Isaacs

This preliminary investigation examined the potential effects of low birth weight on motor performance in children. Seventeen pairs of children were matched by age and placed in one of five age groups (5-9 years). One of each pair weighed 2,200 grams or less at birth (low birth weight, LBW) and the other weighed more than 2,200 grams at birth (normal birth weight, NBW). Three types of data were collected: motor development data, reaction time data, and anthropometric data. Nine paired t tests were performed. To control for alpha level inflation, the Bonferroni technique was employed. The two groups did not differ significantly in present body weight. Tests of gross motor development found the NBW group to be more advanced in both locomotor skills and object control skills. With regard to triceps skinfold, again the NBW group was found to have greater values. No other between-group measurements of body composition were significant. In addition, girls were significantly higher than boys in percent body fat. These preliminary results suggest the LBW children lag behind their NBW peers in the development of the basic fundamental motor skills.

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Simon Wang and Stuart M. McGill

Spine stability is ensured through isometric coactivation of the torso muscles; however, these same muscles are used cyclically to assist ventilation. Our objective was to investigate this apparent paradoxical role (isometric contraction for stability or rhythmic contraction for ventilation) of some selected torso muscles that are involved in both ventilation and support of the spine. Eight, asymptomatic, male subjects provided data on low back moments, motion, muscle activation, and hand force. These data were input to an anatomically detailed, biologically driven model from which spine load and a lumbar spine stability index was obtained. Results revealed that subjects entrained their torso stabilization muscles to breathe during demanding ventilation tasks. Increases in lung volume and back extensor muscle activation coincided with increases in spine stability, whereas declines in spine stability were observed during periods of low lung inflation volume and simultaneously low levels of torso muscle activation. As a case study, aberrant ventilation motor patterns (poor muscle entrainment), seen in one subject, compromised spine stability. Those interested in rehabilitation of patients with lung compromise and concomitant back troubles would be assisted with knowledge of the mechanical links between ventilation during tasks that impose spine loading.

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Tania Pereira, John Durocher and Jamie Burr

strength and power. Pearson correlation was used to determine if there was a relationship between HR inflation and riding intensity (%VO 2 max), thus indicating whether riding intensity influenced the level of inflation. Pearson correlation was also used with perception of effort and age, experience, and

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Kristin M. Mills, Scott Sadler, Karen Peterson and Lorrin Pang

aged 72 years or older was $19,440 (for those who sought medical care for their falls), which translates to approximately $28,430 in 2012, adjusting for general inflation. 3 About 20%–30% of elderly who fall will suffer a serious injury that can limit independence or increase the risk of untimely

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Jeff A. Nessler, Thomas Hastings, Kevin Greer and Sean C. Newcomer

according to manufacturer guidelines. For trials that required inflation of the bladder, consistency in air pressure was achieved by performing a predetermined number of strokes with a manual bicycle pump (5 strokes for medium sized vest and 8 strokes for large sized vest). The number of strokes was

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Devajyoti Deka

, p values, and variance inflation factors. The variance inflation factors estimates are provided to show that the models are not adversely affected by multicollinearity. Some statisticians suggest that all variance inflation factors estimates should be lower than 5 ( Studenmund, 2001 ), whereas

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

application of IPC to determine its efficacy as a potential preexercise priming strategy. The first study to investigate IPC in a human exercise model demonstrated a 3% improvement in maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ) after a 3 × 5-minute bilateral leg-cuff inflation (220 mm Hg) protocol. 4 A

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Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, Alexa L. Werner and Kendall M. Iverson

(although to be expected) high collinearity (variance inflation factor > 10) within anthropometric measure categories (eg, the torso depth was highly correlated with gestational age). We also observed high collinearity between torso anthropometry and BMI. We had to account for this high collinearity and

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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

counterpulsation (ECP). The ECP involves the rapid distal to proximal electrocardiogram (ECG)-synchronized inflation of cuffs that surround the calves, thighs, and buttocks to supra-systolic pressures of up to 300 mm Hg during diastole and simultaneous cuff deflation during systole. Numerous patient populations

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James R. Broatch, David J. Bishop and Shona Halson

were performed with a pressure cuff applied to the upper right thigh using an automated rapid cuff inflation system (Hokanson, Bellevue, WA). The venous occlusion technique required the inflation of the cuff to 70 mm Hg to restrict venous outflow (while still allowing arterial inflow). By monitoring