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Pablo A. Domene, Michelle Stanley and Glykeria Skamagki

Background: The investigation sought to (1) establish the extent of injuries, (2) determine the odds of sustaining an injury, and (3) calculate the injury incidence rate in nonprofessional salsa dance. Methods: Salsa dancers completed an anonymous web-based survey containing 11 demographic background and 10 (1 y retrospective) injury history questions. Results: The response rate was 77%. The final sample of respondents included 303 women and 147 men, of which 22% and 14%, respectively, sustained ≥1 injury during salsa dance in the past year. The odds of injury was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–3.50) times greater (P < .05) for women than for men. Age, body mass index, and salsa dance experience were also found to be significant (all Ps < .05) predictors of injury. The injury incidence rate for women and men was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.9–1.4) and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3–0.7) injuries per 1000 hours of exposure, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first study to have described salsa dancers in terms of their injury history profile. Results indicate that the likelihood of sustaining an injury during this physical activity is similar to that of ballroom, but lower than that of Spanish, aerobic, and Zumba®, dance.

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Harold King, Stephen Campbell, Makenzie Herzog, David Popoli, Andrew Reisner and John Polikandriotis


More than 1 million US high school students play football. Our objective was to compare the high school football injury profiles by school enrollment size during the 2013–2014 season.


Injury data were prospectively gathered on 1806 student athletes while participating in football practice or games by certified athletic trainers as standard of care for 20 high schools in the Atlanta Metropolitan area divided into small (<1600 students enrolled) or large (≥1600 students enrolled) over the 2013–2014 football season.


Smaller schools had a higher overall injury rate (79.9 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures vs. 46.4 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures; P < .001). In addition, smaller schools have a higher frequency of shoulder and elbow injuries (14.3% vs. 10.3%; P = .009 and 3.5% vs. 1.5%; P = .006, respectively) while larger schools have more hip/upper leg injuries (13.3% vs. 9.9%; P = .021). Lastly, smaller schools had a higher concussion distribution for offensive lineman (30.6% vs. 13.4%; P = .006) and a lower rate for defensive backs/safeties (9.2% vs. 25.4%; P = .008).


This study is the first to compare and show unique injury profiles for different high school sizes. An understanding of school specific injury patterns can help drive targeted preventative measures.

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Leilani Madrigal, Jamie Robbins, Diane L. Gill and Katherine Wurst

Collegiate rugby is a competitive, collision sport, yet insufficient empirical evidence exists regarding participants’ perspectives on pain and injury. This study addressed male and female rugby players’ experiences with injury, and their views about playing through pain and injury. Eleven rugby players (five male; six female) competing in USA Rugby’s National College 7’s tournament participated in semistructured interviews, which were recorded, transcribed, and content-analyzed. Two major themes emerged: passion for sport and sport ethic. Passion for sport was composed of (a) love of the sport, (b) meaning of the sport, and (c) desire to be on the field. Sport ethic included: (a) helping the team, (b) game time sacrifice, (c) personality, (d) minimize, and (e) accepted behavior. The researchers explain these findings and propose strategies for increasing future athletes’ understanding of the dangers associated with playing through pain, and confronting the currently accepted culture of risk.

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Kristin M. Mills, Scott Sadler, Karen Peterson and Lorrin Pang

Background: Falls in the elderly represent a public health crisis. Effective prevention programs need to conduct economic analyses. The Move With Balance program showed a 65% reduction in falls in institutionalized elderly. Methods: We evaluated the return on investment (ROI) of Move With Balance. We calculated the ROI for 2 situations: first, using data from the current study (N = 27); second, extrapolating the data to an “intended” annual program (N = 45) where training costs can be spread over 6 years. Results: The program costs for the current study was $11,143. Based on an efficacy rate of 65%, we estimated that 13 falls were averted among the 21 participants in the treatment group. At a cost of $1440/fall, total averted cost of falls was $18,720. The ROI was 1.7:1 for a 10-week period. Program effects persisted for at least 6 months. Extrapolating the current program costs and fall rates to include classes for 45 people twice a year, the annual program costs would be $27,217. Total annual averted cost of falls would be $208,594. The annual ROI in this group would be 7.6:1. Conclusions: Move With Balance not only is efficacious in reducing falls in institutionalized elderly but also has a positive ROI.

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John Heil

Expectations regarding pain tolerance are imbedded in the culture of sport, and bear heavily on pain and injury management. The athlete’s experience of pain is an encounter with core issues in the ethos of sport. As such, pain behavior not only influences performance but also is seen as defining character. This case study looks at the pain experience of a track and field athlete over a several-hour period from initial injury to stabilization, blending the perspective of athlete and sport psychologist. As the injury experience evolved, a complex set of interacting biological, psychological and social factors came into play, which alternately facilitated and inhibited the pain experience and which influenced action taken in response to pain.

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Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer and Sam Robertson

/SM budget that can be used to fund additional service provision. Such funding is self-prioritized by players, usually to cover the costs of sport science (i.e., biomechanical swing analysis) and injury management (i.e., physiotherapy) services (B. James, personal communication, November 14, 2017). This

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Paul R. Ashbrook, Andrew Gillham and Douglas Barba

season (i.e., finished with a win) and areas of opportunity. Reinforced concepts that were heavily discussed. Continued improvement of routine. Also discussed practice strategies. Confidence continues to increase. Excited to keep building over remaining sessions and into summer. Continued work on injury

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Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell and Justin Tatman

Sport-media outlets portray sports-injury management accurately. H (2) = 5.45, p  = .07 H (2) = 1.80, p  = .41 H (2) = 1.68, p  = .43 Sport-media outlets use accurate terminology when reporting on concussions. H (2) = 4.39, p  = .11 H (2) = 7.34, p  = .03 H (2) = 2.29, p  = .32 Sport-media outlets

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

out of sport. To date, only a handful of systematic studies have considered the performance domain of contemporary circus ( Leroux, 2014 ; Rantisi & Leslie, 2014 ). These studies investigated themes such as experiences of injuries and injury management ( Shrier & Hallé, 2011 ; Stubbe et al., 2018