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Pablo A. Domene, Michelle Stanley and Glykeria Skamagki

Background: The investigation sought to (1) establish the extent of injuries, (2) determine the odds of sustaining an injury, and (3) calculate the injury incidence rate in nonprofessional salsa dance. Methods: Salsa dancers completed an anonymous web-based survey containing 11 demographic background and 10 (1 y retrospective) injury history questions. Results: The response rate was 77%. The final sample of respondents included 303 women and 147 men, of which 22% and 14%, respectively, sustained ≥1 injury during salsa dance in the past year. The odds of injury was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–3.50) times greater (P < .05) for women than for men. Age, body mass index, and salsa dance experience were also found to be significant (all Ps < .05) predictors of injury. The injury incidence rate for women and men was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.9–1.4) and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3–0.7) injuries per 1000 hours of exposure, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first study to have described salsa dancers in terms of their injury history profile. Results indicate that the likelihood of sustaining an injury during this physical activity is similar to that of ballroom, but lower than that of Spanish, aerobic, and Zumba®, dance.

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Harold King, Stephen Campbell, Makenzie Herzog, David Popoli, Andrew Reisner and John Polikandriotis


More than 1 million US high school students play football. Our objective was to compare the high school football injury profiles by school enrollment size during the 2013–2014 season.


Injury data were prospectively gathered on 1806 student athletes while participating in football practice or games by certified athletic trainers as standard of care for 20 high schools in the Atlanta Metropolitan area divided into small (<1600 students enrolled) or large (≥1600 students enrolled) over the 2013–2014 football season.


Smaller schools had a higher overall injury rate (79.9 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures vs. 46.4 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures; P < .001). In addition, smaller schools have a higher frequency of shoulder and elbow injuries (14.3% vs. 10.3%; P = .009 and 3.5% vs. 1.5%; P = .006, respectively) while larger schools have more hip/upper leg injuries (13.3% vs. 9.9%; P = .021). Lastly, smaller schools had a higher concussion distribution for offensive lineman (30.6% vs. 13.4%; P = .006) and a lower rate for defensive backs/safeties (9.2% vs. 25.4%; P = .008).


This study is the first to compare and show unique injury profiles for different high school sizes. An understanding of school specific injury patterns can help drive targeted preventative measures.

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Kristin M. Mills, Scott Sadler, Karen Peterson and Lorrin Pang

Background: Falls in the elderly represent a public health crisis. Effective prevention programs need to conduct economic analyses. The Move With Balance program showed a 65% reduction in falls in institutionalized elderly. Methods: We evaluated the return on investment (ROI) of Move With Balance. We calculated the ROI for 2 situations: first, using data from the current study (N = 27); second, extrapolating the data to an “intended” annual program (N = 45) where training costs can be spread over 6 years. Results: The program costs for the current study was $11,143. Based on an efficacy rate of 65%, we estimated that 13 falls were averted among the 21 participants in the treatment group. At a cost of $1440/fall, total averted cost of falls was $18,720. The ROI was 1.7:1 for a 10-week period. Program effects persisted for at least 6 months. Extrapolating the current program costs and fall rates to include classes for 45 people twice a year, the annual program costs would be $27,217. Total annual averted cost of falls would be $208,594. The annual ROI in this group would be 7.6:1. Conclusions: Move With Balance not only is efficacious in reducing falls in institutionalized elderly but also has a positive ROI.

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

out of sport. To date, only a handful of systematic studies have considered the performance domain of contemporary circus ( Leroux, 2014 ; Rantisi & Leslie, 2014 ). These studies investigated themes such as experiences of injuries and injury management ( Shrier & Hallé, 2011 ; Stubbe et al., 2018