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Billy T. Hulin, Tim J. Gabbett, Nathan J. Pickworth, Rich D. Johnston and David G. Jenkins

-intensity intermittent running ability and injury risk is not known in team-sport athletes. Wearable microtechnology enables practitioners to easily quantify external workloads of multiple players. 10 , 11 As a means of assessing changes in high-intensity running ability, regular monitoring of heart rate responses

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Shelby A. Peel, Lauren E. Schroeder, Zachary A. Sievert and Joshua T. Weinhandl

time of injury. Several biomechanical risk factors have been identified as increasing the chance of a noncontact ACL injury to occur. Greater knee abduction angles and greater internal knee adduction moments (KAM) have been shown to be primary predictors of ACL injury risk, with KAM being dependent on

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Nathaniel S. Nye, Drew S. Kafer, Cara Olsen, David H. Carnahan and Paul F. Crawford

cardiovascular risk. 25 , 26 Research is limited with regard to assessment and comparison of different anthropometric measures as predictors of injury risk. Few have attempted to make direct comparisons of different anthropometric measures to determine the most effective for estimating future risk for injury

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Scott Bonnette, Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Jed A. Diekfuss and Gregory D. Myer

Numerous prevention programs have been implemented to reduce ACL injury incidence. 12 Some of these have shown effectiveness in reducing ACL injury risk, 13 – 17 while others have resulted in less desirable outcomes. 18 – 20 Unfortunately, the totality of evidence regarding the effectiveness of

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Robert McCunn, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Sean Williams, Travis J. Halseth, John A. Sampson and Andrew Murray

professional playing experience, highlighting the potential influence of this factor on injury risk. In addition to this challenge, American football is characterized by disparate playing positions and athlete somatotypes, 8 further complicating the issue of training program design. 9 Unsurprisingly, playing

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Scott L. Bruce, Jared R. Rush, Megan M. Torres and Kyle J. Lipscomb

There is an absence of literature pertaining to the reliability of core muscular endurance tests. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest and interrater reliability of four core muscular endurance tests. Participants were physically active, college students. Data were gathered during three trials for each core test. Participants were timed by two test administrators (raters) until the participant could no longer hold the test position. Test-retest reliability values ranged from 0.57–0.85 for all three trials, and from 0.80–0.89 for the latter two trials. Interrater reliability values ranged from 0.99–1.00 for all three trials of all four tests. Although the participants were not athletes, we were able to demonstrate good test-retest and interrater reliability for the core muscular endurance tests assessed.

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Erich J. Petushek, Edward T. Cokely, Paul Ward and Gregory D. Myer

Instrument-based biomechanical movement analysis is an effective injury screening method but relies on expensive equipment and time-consuming analysis. Screening methods that rely on visual inspection and perceptual skill for prognosticating injury risk provide an alternative approach that can significantly reduce cost and time. However, substantial individual differences exist in skill when estimating injury risk performance via observation. The underlying perceptual-cognitive mechanisms of injury risk identification were explored to better understand the nature of this skill and provide a foundation for improving performance. Quantitative structural and process modeling of risk estimation indicated that superior performance was largely mediated by specific strategies and skills (e.g., irrelevant information reduction), and independent of domain-general cognitive abilities (e.g., mental rotation, general decision skill). These cognitive models suggest that injury prediction expertise (i.e., ACL-IQ) is a trainable skill, and provide a foundation for future research and applications in training, decision support, and ultimately clinical screening investigations.

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Rhodri S. Lloyd, Jon L. Oliver, Gregory D. Myer, Mark B. De Ste Croix, Josh Wass and Paul J. Read

-relevant tasks should be considered an important component for injury risk reduction. Jump-landing assessments are frequently used within preparticipation screens to aid in the identification of injury risk 4 – 6 ; however, research has indicated that there is a diverse range of assessment tools used within

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Klaus Schneider and Ronald F. Zernicke

With a validated mathematical model of the head-neck consisting of nine rigid bodies (skull, seven cervical vertebrae, and torso), we simulated head impacts to estimate the injury risk associated with soccer heading. Experimental data from head-linear accelerations during soccer heading were used to validate the nine-body head-neck model for short duration impact loading of the head. In the computer simulations, the mass ratios between head mass and impacting body mass, the velocity of the impacting body, and the impact elasticity were varied. Head-linear and angular accelerations were compared to standard head-injury tolerance levels, and the injury risk specifically related to soccer heading was estimated. Based on our choice of tolerance levels in general, our simulations showed that injury risk from angular head accelerations was greater than from linear head accelerations, and compared to frontal impacts, lateral impacts had greater angular and less linear head accelerations. During soccer heading, our simulations indicated an unacceptable injury risk caused by angular head accelerations for frontal and lateral impacts at relatively low impact velocities for children, and at medium range impact velocities for adults. For linear head accelerations, injury risk existed for frontal and lateral impacts at medium range to relatively larger impact velocities for children, while no injury risk was shown for adults throughout the entire velocity range. For injury prevention, we suggest that head-injury risk can be reduced most substantially by increasing the mass ratio between head and impacting body. In soccer with children, the mass of the impacting body has to be adjusted to the reduced head mass of a child, that is, it must be clearly communicated to parents, coaches, and youngsters to only use smaller soccer balls.

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Marcus J. Colby, Brian Dawson, Peter Peeling, Jarryd Heasman, Brent Rogalski, Michael K. Drew and Jordan Stares

Australian football (AF) is a physical game involving large running volumes, rapid directional changes, and high-velocity running efforts. Minimizing injury risk is a priority for sports medicine/science staff as injuries have a detrimental impact on team and individual success. 1 An increased