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Shelby A. Peel, Lauren E. Schroeder, Zachary A. Sievert and Joshua T. Weinhandl

time of injury. Several biomechanical risk factors have been identified as increasing the chance of a noncontact ACL injury to occur. Greater knee abduction angles and greater internal knee adduction moments (KAM) have been shown to be primary predictors of ACL injury risk, with KAM being dependent on

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Scott Bonnette, Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Jed A. Diekfuss and Gregory D. Myer

Numerous prevention programs have been implemented to reduce ACL injury incidence. 12 Some of these have shown effectiveness in reducing ACL injury risk, 13 – 17 while others have resulted in less desirable outcomes. 18 – 20 Unfortunately, the totality of evidence regarding the effectiveness of

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Scott L. Bruce, Jared R. Rush, Megan M. Torres and Kyle J. Lipscomb

There is an absence of literature pertaining to the reliability of core muscular endurance tests. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest and interrater reliability of four core muscular endurance tests. Participants were physically active, college students. Data were gathered during three trials for each core test. Participants were timed by two test administrators (raters) until the participant could no longer hold the test position. Test-retest reliability values ranged from 0.57–0.85 for all three trials, and from 0.80–0.89 for the latter two trials. Interrater reliability values ranged from 0.99–1.00 for all three trials of all four tests. Although the participants were not athletes, we were able to demonstrate good test-retest and interrater reliability for the core muscular endurance tests assessed.

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Rhodri S. Lloyd, Jon L. Oliver, Gregory D. Myer, Mark B. De Ste Croix, Josh Wass and Paul J. Read

-relevant tasks should be considered an important component for injury risk reduction. Jump-landing assessments are frequently used within preparticipation screens to aid in the identification of injury risk 4 – 6 ; however, research has indicated that there is a diverse range of assessment tools used within

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Klaus Schneider and Ronald F. Zernicke

With a validated mathematical model of the head-neck consisting of nine rigid bodies (skull, seven cervical vertebrae, and torso), we simulated head impacts to estimate the injury risk associated with soccer heading. Experimental data from head-linear accelerations during soccer heading were used to validate the nine-body head-neck model for short duration impact loading of the head. In the computer simulations, the mass ratios between head mass and impacting body mass, the velocity of the impacting body, and the impact elasticity were varied. Head-linear and angular accelerations were compared to standard head-injury tolerance levels, and the injury risk specifically related to soccer heading was estimated. Based on our choice of tolerance levels in general, our simulations showed that injury risk from angular head accelerations was greater than from linear head accelerations, and compared to frontal impacts, lateral impacts had greater angular and less linear head accelerations. During soccer heading, our simulations indicated an unacceptable injury risk caused by angular head accelerations for frontal and lateral impacts at relatively low impact velocities for children, and at medium range impact velocities for adults. For linear head accelerations, injury risk existed for frontal and lateral impacts at medium range to relatively larger impact velocities for children, while no injury risk was shown for adults throughout the entire velocity range. For injury prevention, we suggest that head-injury risk can be reduced most substantially by increasing the mass ratio between head and impacting body. In soccer with children, the mass of the impacting body has to be adjusted to the reduced head mass of a child, that is, it must be clearly communicated to parents, coaches, and youngsters to only use smaller soccer balls.

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Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Gregory D. Myer and Adam W. Kiefer

performance, quality of movement, or injury risk. To that end, dynamic unilateral and bilateral tasks, such as the single-limb drop landing ( Ali, Rouhi, & Robertson, 2013 ; Ford et al., 2006 ) and the drop vertical jump ( Hewett et al., 2005 ; Myer et al., 2010 ), respectively, have been used to identify

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Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Scott Bonnette and Gregory D. Myer

Biomechanical analyses of sport movements have classically been used to quantify kinematic (ie, joint angular motion) and kinetic (ie, joint moments of force) factors in the context of task performance, injury risk, or pathology. Traditional biomechanical assessments include indices of walking and

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Katherine Lee, James Onate, Samar McCann, Tamerah Hunt, Wilbert Turner and Mark Merrick

Clinical Scenario:

In wrestling, athletes often support a large amount of weight on their heads or are forced into extreme ranges of motion. These suboptimal movement conditions lead to a high prevalence of neck injuries in wrestlers. A large portion of the work done by the cervical musculature in wrestling is theorized to be eccentric or isometric types of contractions. Strengthening of these cervical muscles is clinically considered to play a vital role in being competitive on the wrestling mat. The cervical stability provided by strengthening these muscles may also play a part in injury prevention among wrestlers.

Focused Clinical Question:

Does increased cervical strength lead to a decreased risk of injury in wrestling?

Summary of Search, “Best Evidence” Appraised, and Key Findings:

The literature was searched for studies of level 4 evidence or higher using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine level of evidence system that investigated the relationship between cervical strength and injury risk in wrestling. No studies were found comparing cervical strength to injury risk in wrestling, but 2 related studies were found and have been included in this critically appraised topic.

Clinical Bottom Line:

There is poor evidence to support a relationship between cervical strength and injury risk in wrestling.

Strength of Recommendation:

There is grade C evidence to indicate that increased cervical strength decreases the risk of injury in wrestling.

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Kristian M. O’Connor, Sarika K. Monteiro and Ian A. Hoelker

The purpose of this study was to compare the knee joint dynamics for males and females performing constrained cutting tasks to an unanticipated running and cutting maneuver. Sixteen male and 17 female recreational athletes were recruited to perform four cutting tasks; unanticipated run and cut (CUT), stride land and cut (SLC), far box-land and cut (FLC), and close box-land and cut (CLC). Three-dimensional knee joint kinematics and kinetics were recorded. Data were compared across gender and task with a 2 × 4 ANOVA (p < .05), and a factor analysis was performed to examine task relationships. There were significant group mean differences between the tasks and across genders. The factor analysis revealed high correlations between the three constrained tasks, but for variables typically associated with ACL injury risk there was a poor relationship to the CUT task. This was particularly true for the frontal plane variables. The constrained tasks were only moderately useful in predicting cutting mechanics.

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João Breno Ribeiro-Alvares, Maurício Pinto Dornelles, Carolina Gassen Fritsch, Felipe Xavier de Lima-e-Silva, Thales Menezes Medeiros, Lucas Severo-Silveira, Vanessa Bernardes Marques and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

screen 11 possible HSI risk factors for each leg, besides the player’s age as a systemic risk factor (see “Summary of hamstring injury risk factors” in the Supplementary Material [available online]). A previous HSI is the main nonmodifiable risk factor for a new HSI 7 , while players with a history of