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Nathaniel S. Nye, Drew S. Kafer, Cara Olsen, David H. Carnahan and Paul F. Crawford

cardiovascular risk. 25 , 26 Research is limited with regard to assessment and comparison of different anthropometric measures as predictors of injury risk. Few have attempted to make direct comparisons of different anthropometric measures to determine the most effective for estimating future risk for injury

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Erich J. Petushek, Edward T. Cokely, Paul Ward and Gregory D. Myer

Instrument-based biomechanical movement analysis is an effective injury screening method but relies on expensive equipment and time-consuming analysis. Screening methods that rely on visual inspection and perceptual skill for prognosticating injury risk provide an alternative approach that can significantly reduce cost and time. However, substantial individual differences exist in skill when estimating injury risk performance via observation. The underlying perceptual-cognitive mechanisms of injury risk identification were explored to better understand the nature of this skill and provide a foundation for improving performance. Quantitative structural and process modeling of risk estimation indicated that superior performance was largely mediated by specific strategies and skills (e.g., irrelevant information reduction), and independent of domain-general cognitive abilities (e.g., mental rotation, general decision skill). These cognitive models suggest that injury prediction expertise (i.e., ACL-IQ) is a trainable skill, and provide a foundation for future research and applications in training, decision support, and ultimately clinical screening investigations.

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Sandra J. Shultz

Despite extensive research, we still do not fully understand the biological mechanisms that underlie a female's increased susceptibility for suffering a noncontact ACL injury. While sex differences in neuromuscular control are often implicated, prevention efforts addressing these differences have not resulted in a profound or sustainable reduction in injury rates. This paper will explore two likely scenarios that explain this greater susceptibility in females: (1) females have a structurally weaker ligament that is more prone or susceptible to failure at a given load (scenario #1), or (2) females develop less knee protection and experiences higher relative loads on the ACL (scenario #2). While we have learned much over the last two decades about ACL injury risk in females, much remains unknown. Continued research is of paramount importance if we are to effectively identify those females who are at greatest risk for injury and effectively reduce their susceptibility through appropriate interventions.

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Eva Martin-Diener, Simon Foster, Meichun Mohler-Kuo and Brian W. Martin

Background:

This study investigates the relationships between physical activity (PA), sports participation and sensation seeking or aggression and injury risk in young men.

Methods:

A representative cohort study was conducted with 4686 conscripts for the Swiss army. Risk factors assessed at baseline were PA, the frequency of sports participation, sensation seeking, and aggression. The number of injuries during the past 12 months was reported 16 months after baseline. Exposure to moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA) was estimated based on baseline PA.

Results:

Among conscripts, 48.5% reported at least 1 injury for the past 12 months. After accounting for exposure to MVPA, the most inactive individuals (reference group) had the highest injury risk and those with high levels of PA and weekly sports participation the lowest (Poisson regression analysis: incidence rate ratio = 0.14 [0.12–0.16]). Independent of activity level, sensation seeking increased cumulative injury incidence significantly (Logistic regression analysis [injured vs. not injured]: odds ratio = 1.29 [1.02–1.63]) and incidence rates marginally. Aggression was marginally associated only with cumulative injury incidence and only in those participating in daily sports.

Conclusions:

When accounting for exposure to PA, being inactive is a strong injury risk factor in young men, whereas the roles of the personality variables are less clear.

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Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement

stress response (i.e., attentional disruption and muscular tension) that leads to injury risk. It is also necessary to explore whether or not the culture surrounding sport allows for concepts such as self-compassion to be acknowledged and whether its use for athletes is more complex than with other

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Lauren J. Lattimer, Joel L. Lanovaz, Jonathan P. Farthing, Stéphanie Madill, Soo Kim, Stephen Robinovitch and Cathy Arnold

lower energy absorption during the most difficult descent (30°), suggesting diminished ability to absorb the total energy in more demanding body positions that are closer to an actual fall. In a FOOSH, an optimal goal would be to decrease injury risk by reducing impact velocity with the hands prior to

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Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik and Nikki Barczak

health outcomes, primarily injury risk, leaving a gap in knowledge surrounding psychosocial outcomes, such as athlete burnout ( Baker et al., 2009 ; Jayanthi, LaBella, Fischer, Pasulka, & Dugas, 2015 ). According to Côté, Baker, and Abernathy ( 2007 ) in their Developmental Model of Sport Participation

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Trisha Patel and Neeru Jayanthi

beneficial than specializing in one sport, as specialization increased injury risk. One father stated, “Unfortunately [specialization] is the trend…[and] probably leads to injuries because you have so much overuse of the same muscles and the same kind of activity.” Another mother likened early specialization

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Joseph J. Knapik, Keith G. Hauret, Sara Canada, Roberto Marin and Bruce Jones

Background:

Associations between physical activity and injuries have been previously examined using self-reports. The present investigation examined this association using objective measures of activity and injury.

Methods:

To quantify ambulatory activity, pedometers were worn daily by recruits in 10 Army Basic Combat Training companies during the 9-week training cycle. Injuries were obtained from a medical surveillance system, defined as traumatic or overuse events resulting in a medical care provider visit. A daily questionnaire documented whether or not recruits wore the pedometers and trained with their companies for the entire day.

Results:

Training companies were categorized by activity level into 3 groups with higher activity (HA, 17,948 ± 550 steps/day), 4 with moderate activity (MA, 16,346 ± 768 steps/day) and 3 with lower activity (LA, 14,772 ± 400 steps/day). Among men, the MA and HA groups were at 1.52 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.15−2.01) and 1.94 (95% CI = 1.46−2.61) times higher injury risk, respectively, compared with the LA group. Among women, the MA and HA groups were at 1.36 (95% CI = 1.07−1.73) and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.24−1.89) times higher injury risk, respectively, compared with low LA group. The relationships remained significant after considering physical characteristics and physical fitness.

Conclusions:

In consonance with previous self-report studies, higher physical activity was associated with higher injury risk.

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Sarah K. Fields and R. Dawn Comstock

Rugby, a fast-paced, aggressive contact sport, has a high incidence of injury. This study examines why US women play rugby given the social stigma surrounding women’s participation in sports in general, particularly contact sports, and despite the high risk of injury. In a survey of their injury history and potential injury risk factors, 339 female rugby players from 14 teams of varied quality and levels of play from a wide geographic area in the United States were asked why they played the sport. Their responses indicate that women play rugby because they enjoy the game, they like the aggressive aspects of the sport, they appreciate the social aspects of the game, and they believe the sport provides them with positive benefits, such as increased fitness, confidence, and strength. The results of this study indicate that many women are willing to risk injury for the positive rewards that they associate with rugby.