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Debbie Van Biesen, Jennifer Mactavish, Janne Kerremans and Yves C. Vanlandewijck

Evidence-based classification systems in Paralympic sport require knowledge of the underlying effect of impairment in a specific sport. This study investigated the relationship between cognition and tactical proficiency in 88 well-trained table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID; 29 women, 59 men, M ± SD IQ 59.9 ± 9.6). Data were collected at 3 competitions sanctioned by the International Federation for Para-Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS). A generic cognitive test consisting of 8 neuropsychological subtests was used to assess cognitive abilities relevant to sport (reaction time, processing speed, and decision speed; spatial visualization; fluid reasoning; memory; executive functioning; and visual processing). The backward stepwise-regression analysis model revealed that 18% of the variance in tactical proficiency was attributed to spatial visualization and simple reaction time. Applications of these findings resulted in an evidence-based classification system that led to the reinclusion of athletes with ID in Paralympic table tennis and provide the basis for future research in this important area.

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Celina Shirazipour and Krystn Orr

research regarding sport for individuals with intellectual impairment. Individuals with intellectual impairment are a growing focus for researchers in disability sport and exercise, and the chapter acknowledges the need for researchers to fill key knowledge gaps, particularly as they relate to

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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns and Fergal Jones

, which has associated respiratory, skeletal, muscle tone, cardiac, and other physical problems, in addition to intellectual impairment. Other co-morbid health issues arise from damage to the central nervous system occurring prenatally or postnatally. These conditions include epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines and Chris Hatton

there is little evidence on physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. 18 For children and adolescents with physical disabilities, intellectual impairment has been found to be consistently and negatively associated with physical activity. 19 Small-scale studies have

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson

of service members and veterans with physical, sensory, or intellectual impairments as well as physical and psychological illnesses (i.e., cancer, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). To achieve its goals, the British Broadcasting Corporation provided extensive television coverage of the

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Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer, Sheranne Fairley and Lea Rossi

The Special Olympics is a recognized sport movement for persons with intellectual impairments. This movement provides services that include participation in a health program, a family program, the scientific academy, and volunteering ( Special Olympics Germany, 2017a ). National Summer and Winter

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Robert W. Motl

considered less accurate than objective assessments ( Matthews, 2005 ). This is because questionnaires are prone to recall and social desirability biases. When applied to young children or persons with intellectual impairments, researchers often obtain questionnaires from parents or caregivers; this

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Callum G. Brownstein, Derek Ball, Dominic Micklewright and Neil V. Gibson

elite runners with intellectual impairment . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2017 ; 49 ( 3 ): 588 – 94 . PubMed ID: 27749685 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001115

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

. , Hart , E. , … Pilegaard , H. ( 2009 ). Evidence for a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from the brain during exercise . Experimental Physiology, 94 ( 10 ), 1062 – 1069 . PubMed doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2009.048512 10.1113/expphysiol.2009.048512 Ruesch , J. ( 1945 ). Intellectual

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Luke Hogarth, Brendan Burkett, Peter Van de Vliet and Carl Payton

In Para swimming, a functional classification system has been used to structure competition since the 1992 Barcelona Paralympics. 1 Swimmers with physical, visual, and intellectual impairments compete in separate classes based on the estimated impact of their impairment on swim performance