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Debbie Van Biesen, Jennifer Mactavish, Janne Kerremans and Yves C. Vanlandewijck

Evidence-based classification systems in Paralympic sport require knowledge of the underlying effect of impairment in a specific sport. This study investigated the relationship between cognition and tactical proficiency in 88 well-trained table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID; 29 women, 59 men, M ± SD IQ 59.9 ± 9.6). Data were collected at 3 competitions sanctioned by the International Federation for Para-Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS). A generic cognitive test consisting of 8 neuropsychological subtests was used to assess cognitive abilities relevant to sport (reaction time, processing speed, and decision speed; spatial visualization; fluid reasoning; memory; executive functioning; and visual processing). The backward stepwise-regression analysis model revealed that 18% of the variance in tactical proficiency was attributed to spatial visualization and simple reaction time. Applications of these findings resulted in an evidence-based classification system that led to the reinclusion of athletes with ID in Paralympic table tennis and provide the basis for future research in this important area.

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Luke Hogarth, Brendan Burkett, Peter Van de Vliet and Carl Payton

In Para swimming, a functional classification system has been used to structure competition since the 1992 Barcelona Paralympics. 1 Swimmers with physical, visual, and intellectual impairments compete in separate classes based on the estimated impact of their impairment on swim performance

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Stein G.P. Menting, Marco J. Konings, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Florentina J. Hettinga

runners with intellectual impairment . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2017 ; 49 ( 3 ): 588 – 594 . PubMed ID: 27749685 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001115 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001115

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Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers and Brendan S. Lay

:10.1097/00005768-200106000-00025 11404671 10.1097/00005768-200106000-00025 20. Hayman M . Two minute clinical test for measurement of intellectual impairment in psychiatric disorders . Arch Neurol Psychiatry . 1942 ; 47 : 454 – 464 . doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1942.02290030112010 10

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Celina Shirazipour and Krystn Orr

research regarding sport for individuals with intellectual impairment. Individuals with intellectual impairment are a growing focus for researchers in disability sport and exercise, and the chapter acknowledges the need for researchers to fill key knowledge gaps, particularly as they relate to

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Robert W. Motl

considered less accurate than objective assessments ( Matthews, 2005 ). This is because questionnaires are prone to recall and social desirability biases. When applied to young children or persons with intellectual impairments, researchers often obtain questionnaires from parents or caregivers; this

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Kirsti Van Dornick and Nancy L.I. Spencer

Parasport 1 has grown significantly over the past 60 years, with the Paralympic Games becoming the second largest multisport event on Earth ( Steadward & Peterson, 1997 ). To gain access to competitive parasport, athletes with physical, sensory, and intellectual impairment are classified