-controlled intervention study, in which the players were randomly allocated 1:1 to receive either a 50,000 IU (1.25 mg) cholecalciferol tablet (pharmaceutical grade: Cal.D.Forte, PSM Healthcare, Auckland NZ), or a similar placebo (NZ Nutritionals, Christchurch NZ) once a fortnight for 11–12 weeks. Players were not
Kirsty A. Fairbairn, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, C. Murray Skeaff, Claire M. Cameron and Tracy L. Perry
Athanasia Chatzipanteli, Nikolaos Digelidis and Athanasios G. Papaioannou
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of student-activated teaching styles through a specific intervention program on students’ self-regulation, lesson satisfaction, and motivation. Six hundred and one 7th grade students (318 boys and 283 girls), aged 13 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a comparison group. The teachers who taught the students assigned to the experimental group used student-activated teaching styles, and specifically the reciprocal, self-check, inclusion, guided discovery, convergent discovery, and divergent discovery styles. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the experimental group, compared with the comparison group, had higher scores in lesson satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and metacognitive activities, and lower scores in external motivation, and amotivation. The study revealed that going beyond the command and/or the practice style of teaching, PE teachers can enhance students’ metacognitive skills, lesson satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.
Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien
. Table 1 Prolonged Training (>1–2 days) Investigations and Postexercise Hepcidin Activity Without Nutritional Intervention Study reference Population Participants Duration Results Ishibashi, Maeda, Sumi, and Goto ( 2017 ) n = 16 Female long-distance runners 7 months with two training blocks Low: base
R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint and P. Hellard
of the study including the testing weeks. Training Categorization As Mujika et al, 3 we tested the swimmers for [La] b during a 5- × 200-m incremental test in the period preceding the intervention study. This test consisted of 200-m swims at a progressively increasing pace (using an audible signal
Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Chelsee Shortt, Adam Pennell and Ryan Sacko
) in attempts to drive and sustain physically active behaviors ( Stodden et al., 2008 ). Most intervention studies in the United States that targeted young children from low socioeconomic environments are situated within Head Start facilities (i.e., federally funded early childhood centers for children
Victor H. Mancini, Deborah A. Wuest and Hans van der Mars
This article provides an overview of the application of systematic supervisory strategies in an undergraduate teacher preparation program. Furthermore, the results are reported for a series of intervention studies. These studies were conducted to determine the impact of using systematic supervisory feedback on teacher behaviors and interaction patterns of preservice physical education teachers. Also included are the findings of the effects of such feedback on the trainees’ attitudes toward teaching, the degree to which they exhibited behaviors indicative of effective teaching, and their awareness of their own teaching behavior.
Chunxiao Li, Ngai Kiu Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum and Chung Wah Yu
cross-sectional design of the study limited the casual inferences of the results. Longitudinal surveys or intervention studies should be used in future to support the current ordering and interpretation. Third, although the current study extended the literature by including mindfulness as a predictor of
Eric T. Poehlman and Christopher Melby
In this brief review we examine the effects of resistance training on energy expenditure. The components of daily energy expenditure are described, and methods of measuring daily energy expenditure are discussed. Cross-sectional and exercise intervention studies are examined with respect to their effects on resting metabolic rate, physical activity energy expenditure, postexercise oxygen consumption, and substrate oxidation in younger and older individuals. Evidence is presented to suggest that although resistance training may elevate resting metabolic rate, il does not substantially enhance daily energy expenditure in free-living individuals. Several studies indicate that intense resistance exercise increases postexercise oxygen consumption and shifts substrate oxidation toward a greater reliance on fat oxidation. Preliminary evidence suggests that although resistance training increases muscular strength and endurance, its effects on energy balance and regulation of body weight appear to be primarily mediated by its effects on body composition (e.g., increasing fat-free mass) rather than by the direct energy costs of the resistance exercise.
Robin S. Vealey
The editorial mission of The Sport Psychologist (TSP) emphasizes the development and implementation of knowledge to enhance the practice of sport psychology. A comprehensive review of all articles published in TSP from 1987 to 1992 was conducted to identify significant trends in knowledge development and implementation since the journal was established. One hundred seventy-six articles were examined and classified based on design, method, objective (scientific or professional), subject characteristics, author characteristics, and content area. Trends that were identified from the review include an emphasis on correlational designs, an increase in intervention studies and the use of case designs, and homogeneity of subjects and authors. Three future directions for advances in applied sport psychology are advocated to increase social relevance, enhance creativity, and reconceptualize the traditional paradigm of knowledge development.
Thomas L. McKenzie, James F. Sallis, Paul Rosengard and Kymm Ballard
SPARK [Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids], in its current form, is a brand that represents a collection of exemplary, research-based, physical education and physical activity programs that emphasize a highly active curriculum, on-site staff development, and follow-up support. Given its complexity (e.g., multiple school levels, inclusion of both physical education and self-management curricula), SPARK features both diverse instructional and diverse curricular models. SPARK programs were initially funded by the NIH as two separate elementary and middle school intervention studies, and the curriculum and instructional models used in them embody the HOPE (Health Optimizing Physical Education) model. This paper reviews background information and studies from both the initial grants (1989–2000) and the dissemination (1994-present) phases of SPARK, identifies program evolution, and describes dissemination efforts and outcomes. Procedures used in SPARK may serve as models for others interested in researching and disseminating evidence-based physical education and physical activity programs.