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Scott R. Brown, Matt Brughelli, Peter C. Griffiths and John B. Cronin


While several studies have documented isokinetic knee strength in junior and senior rugby league players, investigations of isokinetic knee and hip strength in professional rugby union players are limited. The purpose of this study was to provide lower-extremity strength profiles and compare isokinetic knee and hip strength of professional rugby league and rugby union players.


32 professional rugby league and 25 professional rugby union players.


Cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque and strength ratios of the dominant and nondominant legs during seated knee-extension/flexion and supine hip-extension/flexion actions at 60°/s.


Forwards from both codes were taller and heavier and had a higher body-mass index than the backs of each code. Rugby union forwards produced significantly (P < .05) greater peak torque during knee flexion in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.81 and 2.02) compared with rugby league forwards. Rugby league backs produced significantly greater hip-extension peak torque in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 0.83 and 0.77) compared with rugby union backs. There were no significant differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios between code, position, or leg. Rugby union forwards and backs produced significantly greater knee-flexion-to-hip-extension ratios in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.49–2.26) than rugby union players.


It seems that the joint torque profiles of players from rugby league and union codes differ, which may be attributed to the different demands of each code.

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Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie and Hiroaki Kanehisa

Physical movements are caused by a combination of joint torques produced by forces developed through muscle contractions. Therefore, an effective way to improve performance in a motor task requiring a high mechanical power output is to increase the joint torque-generation capability of the “key

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, André R. Nelson, Adam G. Storey and John B. Cronin

30701597 18. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H. Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001

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Thomas M. Comyns, Eamonn P. Flanagan, Sean Fleming, Evan Fitzgerald and Damian J. Harper

stiffness during eccentric phase in rebound jumps on ankle joint torque at midpoint . Int J Sports Med . 2007 ; 28 ( 1 ): 66 – 71 . PubMed ID: 17024641 doi:10.1055/s-2006-923903. 10.1055/s-2006-923903 17024641 17. McBride JM , McCaulley GO , Cormie P . Influence of preactivity and eccentric

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Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley and Nicholas Tam

.1080/02640414.2013.777763 10. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , Fujii N . Athletics: mechanical energy flow in the recovery leg of elite race walkers . Sport Biomech . 2003 ; 2 ( 1 ): 1 – 13 . doi:10.1080/14763140308522804 10.1080/14763140308522804 11. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , et al . Joint torque and

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

. 1989 ; 409 : 451 – 471 . PubMed ID: 2585297 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 2585297 46. Coratella G , Bellin G , Beato M , Schena F . Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps . J Sports Sci . 2015 ; 33 ( 12 ): 1276