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  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
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Deborah Hebling Spinoso, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Camilla Zamfollini Hallal, Aline Harumi Karuka, Fernanda Cristina Milanezi and Mauro Gonçalves

, & Maganaris, 2008 ; Samuel, Rowe, & Nicol, 2013 ). Functional demand is described as the percentage of maximal strength that is used during a task, which is usually determined by recording peak joint torques (moments) during ambulatory activities and expressing them as a percentage of maximal voluntary

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick and Luigi Ferrucci

to improve walking in older adults . Current Translational Geriatrics and Experimental Gerontology Reports, 2 ( 4 ), 230 – 238 . doi: 10.1007/s13670-013-0059-0 DeVita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied

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Jaqueline M. Porto, Sállua B. Spilla, Luciana M. Cangussu-Oliveira, Renato C. Freire Júnior, Ana Paula M. Nakaishi and Daniela C.C. de Abreu

doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0245-2 Crozara , L.F. , Morcelli , M.H. , Marques , N.R. , Hallal , C.Z. , Spinoso , D.H. , Almeida Neto , A.F. , . . . Gonçalves , M. ( 2013 ). Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers . Journal of

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Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer

), who showed that bicyclists had greater muscle strength compared with age-matched controls. In a pilot study, Rissel et al. ( 2013 ) found a significant improvement in balance and leg strength among older adults after outdoor bicycling intervention. Also, Verney et al. ( 2006 ) concluded that the joint

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Wai-Ting Lo, Kit-Lun Yick, Newman Lau, Lok-Tung Tse, Sun-Pui Ng and Joanne Yip

: a comparison between individuals with acromegaly and healthy subjects . Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 25 ( 2 ), 218 – 227 . PubMed doi:10.1123/japa.2016-0100 10.1123/japa.2016-0100 Devita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

pointed out above, the lower postural stability of overweight/obese children (8–12 years old) and adolescents could be due to deficient muscle force production. Following the inverted pendulum model for upright stance, the higher the body mass the larger and faster the joint torques to maintain stability

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Katie A. Conway and Jason R. Franz

, 116 ( 3 ), 525 – 538 . PubMed ID: 9372302 doi:10.1007/PL00005781 10.1007/PL00005781 DeVita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 ( 5 ), 1804 – 1811 . doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10

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Ben Serrien, Maggy Goossens and Jean-Pierre Baeyens

increasing performance. Conversely, participants further away from their PHV 1 showed stronger decreases in CV. Growth and weight gain affect the moments of inertia and it has been shown that muscle strength does not increase proportionally to produce higher joint torques ( Jensen, 1981 , 1989 ). Athletes

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Konstantina Katsoulis, Liza Stathokostas and Catherine E. Amara

a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 ( 5 ), 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 de Vos , N.J. , Singh , N.A. , Ross , D.A. , Stavrinos , T.M. , Orr , R. , & Fiatarone

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Daniela Corbetta, Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman and Emalie McMahon

development of goal-directed reaching in infants: Hand trajectory formation and joint torque control . Experimental Brain Research, 106 , 156 – 168 . PubMed doi:10.1007/BF00241365 10.1007/BF00241365 Lasky , R.E. ( 1977 ). The effect of visual feedback of the hand on the reaching and retrieval behavior