constraints. Perhaps the metaphor of ‘taking a knee’ can be useful as we consider for ourselves, individually and collectively, how to do this work. As is always the case, there are others who have gone before us, helping to break the trail. In this article, I will reflect on my own work within the United
real time upon which an untold amount of future scholarship will be based. Historian Eric Burin clearly has been thinking about this as well, giving us an edited collection of essays that he called “a first draft of history.” Protesting on Bended Knee: Race, Dissent, and Patriotism in 21 st Century
Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz
both primary and second injury and to optimize joint function and health outcomes. ACL injury typically occurs during a sudden deceleration with change of direction (e.g., a land-and-cut maneuver). Lower-extremity motions observed at the time of injury are a relatively extended knee coupled with knee
Sharon H. Thompson, Alan J. Case and Roger G. Sargent
Group exercise instructors are at particular risk for performance-related injuries because many teach multiple classes each day where they repetitively demonstrate exercise moves. To assess performance-related injuries, a paper-pencil survey was mailed to 1000 randomly selected American Council on Exercise certified group exercise instructors. Questionnaire respondents included 386 professionally certified female instructors from 48 states. Most injuries reported (77%) were of the lower extremity (feet, knee, calf, thigh, shin, ankle, hip). Less than one-fourth of the injuries (23%) were of the trunk or upper body (shoulder, arm, back). The three most commonly reported injury sites were the foot (13.1%), knee (12.5%), and back (9.5%). The three most common types of injury reported were general inflammation (20.7%), muscle strain or sprains (19.6%), and stress fractures (16.8%). Two independent variables were significantly associated with rates of injuries: obligatory exercise scores (p = .0028), and reports of a past eating disorder (p = .0007). Group exercise instructors are at particular risk for injury to the lower body. Those instructors with exercise and eating-related disorders are especially prone to activity-related injuries.
Sharon H. Thompson, Presley Smith and Rita DiGioacchino
A serious commitment to sport and exercise may predispose female athletes to the development of eating disorders. The energy restriction and accompanying menstrual disorders that are often associated with eating disorders may increase female athletes’ injury risks. The purpose of this study was to assess NCAA Division I, II, and III female collegiate cross country athletes’ weekly exercise time, rates of injury, menstrual dysfunction, and subclinical eating disorder risks. A paper-pencil survey was completed by athletes (mean age = 19.64 years) from NCAA Division I (n = 82), Division II (n = 103) and Division III (n = 115) colleges across the United States. Division I athletes spent significantly more weekly exercise time (M = 687.97 minutes) than Division II (M = 512.38 minutes, p = .0007) or Division III (M = 501.32 minutes, p = .0003) athletes. When examining rates of menstrual dysfunction, 23 percent reported amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea. Over 60 percent (64.3%) of the athletes reported a performance-related injury, with the knee being the most commonly injured site. 24 percent (23.7%) of the athletes reported having stress fractures. Scores for subclinical eating disorders for Division I athletes were significantly higher (M = 87.11) than Division III athletes (M = 82.94, p = .0042). Division I female athletes may be at an increased risk of developing subclinical eating disorders compared to those competing in Division II or III. Because early identification of those with subclinical eating disorders prevents the progression to eating disorders, further study is warranted.
ARTICLES Metaphorically ‘Taking a Knee’: Pausing, Reflecting, Acting Theresa Walton-Fisette * 1 12 2018 35 4 293 300 10.1123/ssj.2018-0024 ssj.2018-0024 Sporting Shanghai: Haipai Cosmopolitanism, Glocal Cityness, and Urban Policy as Mega-Event Lin Yu * Hanhan Xue * Joshua I. Newman * 1 12
Travis Anderson, Sandra J. Shultz, Nancy I. Williams, Ellen Casey, Zachary Kincaid, Jay L. Lieberman and Laurie Wideman
relaxin receptors on the female ACL ( Dragoo, Lee, Benhaim, Finerman, & Hame, 2003 ), exercise physiologists and sports medicine professionals have been interested in relaxin as a potential factor in anterior knee laxity and associated ACL injury risk. Indeed, it has been suggested that increased relaxin
Abstract Summaries Open Communications Gender Gap in Painful Knees: PFJ & ACL – ‘Odd Couple’ Biomechanics and Neuromuscular Differences Between Females and Males Mimi Zumwalt 1 1 Texas Tech University Health Sciences Centre, TX, USA Since 1972, after Title IX was passed governing gender equality in
Earl Smith and Angela J. Hattery
a knee” movement is an exemplar of this perspective ( McNeil, 2017 ). From Jackie Robinson to the Williams Sisters to Jack Johnson to Tiger Woods to Althea Gibson to Fritz Pollard and, of course, Muhammad Ali—all of these pioneering “ballers” suffered the indignities of racial discrimination
. The 1890 massacre of hundreds of innocent Lakota at Wounded Knee may have marked the last of a string of murderous outrages by the US military, but it wasn’t the end of racial murder, nor of rights violations against them. The years since Wounded Knee have been annually marked by newsworthy racist