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Cole G. Armstrong, Theodore M. Butryn, Vernon L. Andrews and Matthew A. Masucci

of Sport, Society, and Social Change (ISSSSC) at San José State University for the support during this project. References Astor , M. ( 2017 , September 27 ). How NFL sponsors have reacted to ‘take a knee’ protests . The New York Times . Retrieved from

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Emily Sparvero, Randall Griffiths and Jacob Tingle

of the crowd, the slice of the blades over ice, and the physical shock wave that came when a player was checked hard in the glass right in front of her; early on she knew she had to be part of this sport. The total knee blowout during the 1996 Minnesota High School playoffs changed her course from

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Jacob K. Tingle, Callum Squires and Randall Griffiths

explainable for the other students, Chaz was the embodiment of the South Texas football sporting experience. In high school he was a starting quarterback and seemed destined for an NCAA Division I team when a knee injury slowed him down and landed him in a Division III program. The changes in his athletic

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Jennifer M. Jacobs, Karisa L. Kuipers, K. Andrew R. Richards and Paul M. Wright

 Purchasing gifts  Basic first aid  Local markets  Spotlight on the shoulder    Ankle and knee 101 Cuisines Coaching  Restaurants  Bringing the juice  Roadside food stands  Coaching growth mindset  Home-cooked meals  Fixing feedback to fuel athletes Recreation Sport Psychology  Semiprofessional basketball

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Jimmy Sanderson

This case study considers how audience labor performed via information and communication technologies (ICTs) helps sports organizations monitor professional athletes. Three incidents are examined—(a) National Basketball Association (NBA) player Greg Oden participating in a pickup (casual) basketball game while he was rehabilitating an injured knee, (b) photographs posted on the Internet that captured National Football League player Matt Leinart posing with several young women in a hot tub and holding a beer bong, and (c) a video posted on YouTube that depicted NBA player Josh Howard disparaging the U.S. national anthem. The case study explores how ICTs enable sports organizations to capitalize on free labor provided by audience members to intensify surveillance of professional athletes and how fans’ ability to comment on news coverage of these stories reinforces organizational control, further reifying professional athletes as commodities.

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Grace Yan, Ann Pegoraro and Nicholas M. Watanabe

. In protesting against police brutality of African Americans, Kaepernick took a knee during the national anthem at National Football League games, which was explained as “I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of color” ( Collins, 2016

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Kathryn L. Heinze and Di Lu

injury. According to Commissioner Tagliabue, at a sport panel discussion in 1994, “There is no increase in concussions, the number is relatively small … The problem is a journalist issue.” The NFL did not prioritize concussions, instead arguing that knee injuries, drugs, and steroids were a greater

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Shaun M. Anderson and Matthew M. Martin

University of California, Los Angeles, was hand-picked by Rickey because he was athletically gifted, well educated, and a former Army officer ( Knee, 2003 ). After hurling racial slurs at Robinson as a test to determine his ability to withstand the hatred that would ensue, Rickey signed Robinson to the Minor

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Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu

didn’t look like Gane slowed down at all and looked impressive. There were times he made some decisions that would get him in trouble with better competition like that spinning back kick when he was along the fence. Dustin actually kneed Eddie in the groin pretty clearly during that final push that

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Xiaochen Zhou, Daniel C. Funk, Lu Lu and Thilo Kunkel

instructor, said, It [An activewear] is more than something that covers my body. If I am lifting weights, I need to wear a firmer fabric that can protect my knees. If I do more intense exercises, I will wear something stretchy because I don’t want to keep pulling my pants up when I work out. High