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Lei Zhou, Marie-Anne Gougeon and Julie Nantel

set at P  < .05 and Tukey procedures for multiple comparisons were used when needed. Results At the knee joint, we found main effects for both groups and conditions (Table  1 ). Comparisons between groups showed a main effect in energy absorption with the knee extensor muscles (K3). On the less

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Reed Ferber, Denise C. Gravelle and Louis R. Osternig

The effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on joint range of motion (ROM) for older adults are unknown, and few studies have investigated changes in joint ROM associated with age. This study examined PNF stretch techniques' effects on knee-joint ROM in trained (T) and untrained (UT) older adults. Knee-joint ROM was tested in T and UT adults age 45–55 and 65–75 years using 3 PNF stretch techniques: static stretch (SS), contract-relax (CR). and agonist contract-relax (ACR). The 45–55 UT group achieved significantly more ROM than did the 65–75 UT group, suggesting an age-related decline in ROM. The 65–75 T group achieved significantly greater knee-extension ROM than did their UT counterparts, indicating a training-related response to PNF stretch techniques and that lifetime training might counteract age-related declines in joint ROM. The ACR-PNF stretch condition produced 4–6° more ROM than did CR and SS for all groups except the 65–75 UT group, possibly as a result of lack of neuromuscular control or muscle strength.

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Sangeetha Madhavan, Sarah Burkart, Gail Baggett, Katie Nelson, Trina Teckenburg, Mike Zwanziger and Richard K. Shields

Neuromuscular control strategies might change with age and predispose the elderly to knee-joint injury. The purposes of this study were to determine whether long latency responses (LLRs), muscle-activation patterns, and movement accuracy differ between the young and elderly during a novel single-limb-squat (SLS) task. Ten young and 10 elderly participants performed a series of resistive SLSs (~0–30°) while matching a computer-generated sinusoidal target. The SLS device provided a 16% body-weight resistance to knee movement. Both young and elderly showed significant overshoot error when the knee was perturbed (p < .05). Accuracy of the tracking task was similar between the young and elderly (p = .34), but the elderly required more muscle activity than the younger participants (p < .05). The elderly group had larger LLRs than the younger group (p < .05). These results support the hypothesis that neuromuscular control of the knee changes with age and might contribute to injury.

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Jianwei Duan, Kuan Wang, Tongbo Chang, Lejun Wang, Shengnian Zhang and Wenxin Niu

painless walking, and excessive stress in a joint is considered to be the main cause of hip OA ( Bombelli, 1983 ). There is little research regarding the effects of Tai Chi on the contact stress inside the hip and knee joints. Recently, Li et al. ( 2019 ) have studied the effect of typical Tai Chi movement

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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis

lateral knee compartment ( Hayashi et al., 2012 ). Such knee joint degradation is likely related to altered joint loading in dynamic knee valgus. One common method to assess dynamic knee valgus is drop landing tasks ( Kagaya, Fujii, & Nishizono, 2015 ). Decreased hip flexion, increased knee abduction, and

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Ayoub Asadi, Alireza Farsi, Behrouz Abdoli, Esmaeel Saemi and Jared M. Porter

of the tibia, and the lateral malleolus of the fibula to measure maximum knee flexion (i.e., minimum knee angle) ( Gokeler et al., 2015 ). We operationally defined maximum knee flexion as the knee joint angle at the time just prior to the subject initiating the extension of the knee joint during the

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Stephanie Studenski and Luigi Ferrucci

, & Dieppe, 1992 ; O’Reilly, Muir, & Doherty, 1996 ) and increases with age ( Peat, McCarney, & Croft, 2001 ), was associated with slower gait speed, longer double support time, and smaller range of motion (ROM) in hip and knee joints while walking ( Bindawas, 2016 ; Kitayuguchi et al., 2015 ; Ko

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Anna C. Severin, Brendan J. Burkett, Mark R. McKean, Aaron N. Wiegand and Mark G.L. Sayers

+ ( 180 − θ thigh sensor ) (1) θ hip = θ sacral sensor + ( 180 − θ thigh sensor ) (2) θ trunk = θ thoracic sensor + ( 180 − θ sacral sensor ) (3) The specified angles will henceforth be referred to as the knee joint (Equation  1 ), hip joint (Equation  2 ), and trunk angle (Equation  3

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Daniël M. van Leeuwen, Fabian van de Bunt, Cornelis J. de Ruiter, Natasja M. van Schoor, Dorly J.H. Deeg and Kaj S. Emanuel

transducer (KAP, E/200 Hz, Bienfait BV Haarlem, the Netherlands) mounted to the frame of the chair, 25 cm distal from the knee joint, on a custom-made adjustable dynamometer. Participants wore hard shin protectors, as used in competitive soccer, for protection during the investigation. Participants were

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Suguru Ando, Yumi Higuchi, Tomomi Kitagawa, Tatsunori Murakami and Emiko Todo

-type dynamometer (μ-Tas F-100; Anima Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) in the sedentary sitting position. The force sensor was placed 10 cm above the lateral malleolus. The isometric knee extension muscle strength under the maximum effort with the knee joint at a 90° bending position was measured twice on each side, and the