The onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis have been attributed to abnormal loading of the knee joint. 1 – 3 Clinical interventions, both surgical and noninvasive, aim to reduce medial compartment knee loads. 4 – 6 Gait retraining is a noninvasive intervention in the treatment of
Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio
Guillaume Mornieux, Elmar Weltin, Monika Pauls, Franz Rott and Albert Gollhofer
Lateral movements with changes of direction are common in many team sports such as soccer or handball. During cutting maneuvers, the athlete performs a complex dynamic task by quickly changing their direction of movement while securing their balance. Knee joint control is an essential requirement
Lei Zhou, Marie-Anne Gougeon and Julie Nantel
set at P < .05 and Tukey procedures for multiple comparisons were used when needed. Results At the knee joint, we found main effects for both groups and conditions (Table 1 ). Comparisons between groups showed a main effect in energy absorption with the knee extensor muscles (K3). On the less
Jinkyu Lee, Yong-Jin Yoon and Choongsoo S. Shin
to increase the double-support time. 14 – 16 The ROM of the knee joints decreased or tended to decrease with an increase in load. 6 , 17 Harman et al 5 explained that a higher knee flexion angle could help soldiers maintain a lower center of mass (COM). However, in the ankle joints
Karen Roemer, Tibor Hortobagyi, Chris Richter, Yolanda Munoz-Maldonado and Stephanie Hamilton
Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18–25), 10 overweight (BMI 25–30 kg·m−2), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m−2) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers.
Jonathan Sinclair, Jack Hebron and Paul J. Taylor
The principal source of measurement error in three-dimensional analyses is the definition of the joint center about which segmental rotations occur. The hip joint has received considerable attention in three-dimensional modeling analyses yet the reliability of the different techniques for the definition of the knee joint center has yet to be established. This study investigated the reliability of five different knee joint center estimation techniques: femoral epicondyle, femoral condyle, tibial ridge, plugin-gait, and functional. Twelve male participants walked at 1.25 m·s−1 and three-dimensional kinetics/kinematics of the knee and ankle were collected. The knee joint center was defined twice using each technique (test-and-retest) and the joint kinetic/kinematic data were applied to both. Wilcoxon rank tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to compare test and retest angular parameters and kinematic waveforms. The results show significant differences in coronal and transverse planes angulation using the tibial ridge, plug-in-gait, and functional methods. The strongest test-retest ICCs were observed for the femoral epicondyle and femoral condyle configurations. The findings from the current investigation advocate that the femoral epicondyle and femoral condyle techniques for the estimation of the knee joint center are currently the most reliable techniques.
Henrik Koblauch, Thomas Heilskov-Hansen, Tine Alkjær, Erik B. Simonsen and Marius Henriksen
It is unclear how rotations of the lower limb affect the knee joint compression forces during walking. Increases in the frontal plane knee moment have been reported when walking with internally rotated feet and a decrease when walking with externally rotated feet. The aim of this study was to investigate the knee joint compressive forces during walking with internal, external and normal foot rotation and to determine if the frontal plane knee joint moment is an adequate surrogate for the compression forces in the medial and lateral knee joint compartments under such gait modifications. Ten healthy males walked at a fixed speed of 4.5 km/h under three conditions: Normal walking, internally rotated and externally rotated. All gait trials were recorded by six infrared cameras. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. The results revealed that the medial knee joint compartment compression force increased during external foot rotation and the lateral knee joint compartment compression force increased during internal foot rotation. The increases in joint loads may be a result of increased knee flexion angles. Further, these data suggest that the frontal plane knee joint moment is not a valid surrogate measure for knee joint compression forces but rather indicates the medial-to-lateral load distribution.
Dominic Thewlis, Jim Richards and Judith Bower
The aim was to investigate the effects of three anatomical frames using palpable anatomical landmarks of the knee on the net knee joint moments. The femoral epicondyles, femoral condyles, and tibial ridges were used to define the different anatomical frames and the segment end points of the distal femur and proximal tibia, which represent the origin of the tibial coordinate system. Gait data were then collected using the calibrated anatomical system technique (CAST), and the external net knee joint moments in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes were calculated based upon the three anatomical frames. Peak knee moments were found to be significantly different in the sagittal plane by approximately 25% (p ≤ 0.05), but no significant differences were seen in the coronal or transverse planes. Based on these findings it is important to consider the definition of anatomical frames and be aware that the use of numerous anatomical landmarks around the knee can have significant effects on knee joint moments.
Lynda Read and Walter Herzog
The purpose of this study was to determine resultant knee joint forces and moments during a specific movement in Alpine ski racers. The movement analyzed consisted of a landing from a bump and the initiation of recovery (if necessary). Resultant loads were obtained using an inverse dynamics approach. Results of two specific skiers are contrasted, one skier landing in good form, the second skier landing in poor form. The skier landing in poor form exhibited larger knee flexion, and larger knee joint resultant forces and moments than the skier landing in good form. The movement of the skier landing in poor form has been associated with isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the data obtained in this study do not indicate that either skier was in danger of ACL injury.
Kristof Kipp, Tyler N. Brown, Scott G. McLean and Riann M. Palmieri-Smith
The purpose of this study was to examine the combined impact of experience and decision making on frontal plane knee joint biomechanics during a cutting maneuver. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 12 recreationally active and 18 NCAA Division I female athletes during execution of anticipated and unanticipated single-leg land-and-cut maneuvers. Knee joint abduction angles and external knee joint abduction torques were calculated and discrete peak stance-phase variables were extracted. Angle and torque time-series data were also submitted to separate functional data analyses. Variables derived from the functional data analyses indicated that decision making influenced knee abduction angle and torque time series in the recreational group only. Specifically, these variables pointed to greater knee abduction at the end of stance as well as a greater, albeit delayed peak in knee abduction torque at the beginning of landing in the recreational athletes during the unanticipated condition. In addition, the recreational athletes displayed greater discrete peak knee abduction angles than the Division I athletes regardless of condition. Discrete peak knee abduction torque did not differ between groups or conditions.