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Hiroki Aoki and Shinichi Demura

Purpose:

This study aimed to compare the laterality, and its gender difference, of hand grip and elbow flexion power according to load in right hand–dominant individuals.

Results:

The subjects were 15 healthy young males (age 22.1 ± 0.7 y, height 171.3 ± 3.4 cm, mass 64.5 ± 4.1 kg) and 15 healthy young females (age 22.4 ± 1.0 y, height 161.1 ± 3.0 cm, mass 55.4 ± 4.6 kg). Isotonic peak power was measured with 6 different loads ranging from 20% to 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for grip and elbow flexion movements.

Results:

The peak power was significantly larger in males than in females in both movements (ratio, males:females was 58.1:49.4%). The dominant right hand had larger peak power in all loads for hand grip power (ratio, dominant:nondominant was 83.6:71.1%) and in loads of 20% to 50% MVC for elbow flexion power (88.7:85.7%) in both genders, confirming laterality in both movements. The peak power ratio of the dominant right hand to the nondomi-nant left hand was significantly larger in hand grip than in elbow flexion for all loads in females.

Conclusion:

Even though laterality was confirmed in both grip and elbow flexion, gender difference is more marked in hand grip.

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Neal Wen, Joshua H. Guy, Nathan Elsworthy, Michele Lastella, David B. Pyne, Daniele Conte and Vincent J. Dalbo

limbs rather than direct performance measures were reported. 5 Furthermore, the extent IMTP peak force underpins other power-driven tasks performed during basketball game-play (lateral movements, bilateral jumping, and sprinting), as well as the relationships between impulse measures attained during

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, André R. Nelson, Adam G. Storey and John B. Cronin

, quadriceps muscle architecture at proximal, middle, and distal regions of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and anterior and lateral vastus intermedius was examined using B-mode and EFOV ultrasonography. Each participant was tested on 3 separate occasions, separated by 5 to 8 days, and the ICC, TEM, and

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Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins and Robert P. Lamberts

(EMG) was measured on 7 right lower limb muscles, namely gluteus medius (GM), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), peroneus longus, tibialis anterior (TA), and lateral and medial gastrocnemius (LG and MG, respectively). Prior to placement, the skin areas were prepared and 2 surface electrodes were

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Jeremy M. Sheppard, Tim Gabbett and Russell Borgeaud

Purpose:

This case study evaluated the effect of repeated lateral movement and jumping training on repeated effort ability in a group of national team male volleyball players.

Methods:

Twelve volleyball players were assessed on their volleyball-specific repeated movement and jumping abilities using a volleyball-specific repeated effort test (RET) before and after 12 weeks of training. The athletes performed between 8 and 9 volleyball training sessions per week, with 5 to 6 of these sessions including specific training aimed at improving repeated effort ability. Typically these training sessions involved 8 to 12 repetitions of 2 to 3 block jumps over a 9-m lateral distance (ie, the athletes had to perform jumps and lateral movements, typical of front court play in volleyball). Population-specific repeatability data were used to determine whether any changes that may have occurred in this study were beyond the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for this testing procedure.

Results:

Improvements in all variables of the RET were observed for each athlete involved in the study, with a small-to-moderate magnitude observed for the mean changes in each variable (Cohen’s d, 0.21 to 0.59). All of the improvements in the results exceeded the MCID.

Conclusions:

These findings demonstrate that the RET is sensitive to training-induced changes. Lateral movement speed and repeated lateral movement speed, as well as jumping and repeated jumping ability are trainable qualities in high-performance volleyball players.

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Brian T. McCormick, James C. Hannon, Maria Newton, Barry Shultz, Nicole Detling and Warren B. Young

Plyometrics is a popular training modality for basketball players to improve power and change-of-direction speed. Most plyometric training has used sagittal-plane exercises, but improvements in change-of-direction speed have been greater in multidirection programs.

Purpose:

To determine the benefits of a 6-wk frontal-plane plyometric (FPP) training program compared with a 6-wk sagittal-plane plyometric (SPP) training program with regard to power and change-of-direction speed.

Methods:

Fourteen female varsity high school basketball players participated in the study. Multiple 2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine differences for the FPP and SPP groups from preintervention to postintervention on 4 tests of power and 2 tests of change-of-direction speed.

Results:

There was a group main effect for time in all 6 tests. There was a significant group × time interaction effect in 3 of the 6 tests. The SPP improved performance of the countermovement vertical jump more than the FPP, whereas the FPP improved performance of the lateral hop (left) and lateral-shuffle test (left) more than the SPP. The standing long jump, lateral hop (right), and lateral-shuffle test (right) did not show a significant interaction effect.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that basketball players should incorporate plyometric training in all planes to improve power and change-of-direction speed.

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O. Girard, J.-P. Micallef and G.P. Millet

Purpose:

This study aimed at examining the influence of different playing surfaces on in-shoe loading patterns in each foot (back and front) separately during the first serve in tennis.

Methods:

Ten competitive tennis players completed randomly five frst (ie, fat) serves on two different playing surfaces: clay vs GreenSet. Maximum and mean force, peak and mean pressure, mean area, contact area and relative load were recorded by Pedar insoles divided into 9 areas for analysis.

Results:

Mean pressure was significantly lower (123 ± 30 vs 98 ± 26 kPa; -18.5%; P < .05) on clay than on GreenSet when examining the entire back foot. GreenSet induced higher mean pressures under the medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and hallux of the back foot (+9.9%, +3.5% and +15.9%, respectively; both P < .01) in conjunction with a trend toward higher maximal forces in the back hallux (+15.1%, P = .08). Peak pressures recorded under the central and lateral forefoot (+21.8% and +25.1%; P < .05) of the front foot but also the mean area values measured on the back medial and lateral midfoot were higher (P < .05) on clay. No significant interaction between foot region and playing surface on relative load was found.

Conclusions:

It is suggested that in-shoe loading parameters characterizing the first serve in tennis are adjusted according to the ground type surface. A lesser asymmetry in peak (P < .01) and mean (P < .001) pressures between the two feet was found on clay, suggesting a greater need for stability on this surface.

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Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Carlos Valero-Campo, César Berzosa, Ana Vanessa Bataller, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, Gerard Moras and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva

Purpose:

To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements.

Methods:

Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6–10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test.

Results:

Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD.

Conclusions:

Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.

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Xiaocai Shi, Mary K. Horn, Kris L. Osterberg, John R. Stofan,, Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, Craig A. Horswill, Dennis H. Passe and Robert Murray

This study investigated whether different beverage carbohydrate concentration and osmolality would provoke gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort during intermittent, high-intensity exercise. Thirty-six adult and adolescent athletes were tested on separate days in a double-blind, randomized trial of 6% and 8% carbohydrate-electrolytes (CHO-E) beverages during four 12-min quarters (Q) of circuit training that included intermittent sprints, lateral hops, shuttle runs, and vertical jumps. GI discomfort and fatigue surveys were completed before the first Q and immediately after each Q. All ratings of GI discomfort were modest throughout the study. The cumulative index for GI discomfort, however, was greater for the 8% CHO-E beverage than for the 6% CHO-E beverage at Q3 and Q4 (P < 0.05). Averaging across all 4 quarters, the 8% CHO-E treatment produced significantly higher mean ratings of stomach upset and side ache. In conclusion, higher CHO concentration and osmolality in an ingested beverage provokes stomach upset and side ache.

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Gordon J. Bell, Gary D. Snydmiller and Alex B. Game

Twenty-four National Hockey League (NHL) goaltenders were observed to determine the types and frequency of their movements during actual games. A secondary purpose was to compare these movements across the 3 periods of game play and between 2 NHL seasons (2003–04 and 2005–06) as a result of several rule changes between seasons. The mean (± SD) age, height, body mass, and years of NHL experience of the goaltenders were 30 ± 4 y, 85.4 ± 4.4 kg, 184.0 ± 3.8 cm, 6.6 ± 4.0 y, respectively. The mean (± SD) number of times and type of movements used during a game in order of most frequent were vertical movement (43.7 ± 10.3), moving laterally (39.7 ± 12.7), moving into full-butterfly position (32.1), anterior–posterior movement in front of goal crease (31.5 ± 11.5), skating out of the goal area to play the puck (19.7 ± 6.3), and using a half butterfly on a single leg pad (left = 5.2 ± 1.9, right = 6.4 ± 2.1). Goaltenders played the puck less frequently during the final period of the game than during the first 2 periods and more frequently between the 2 different NHL seasons after certain rule changes. It was concluded that NHL goaltenders move most frequently vertically, laterally, and out of the net to play the puck. In addition, goaltenders moved out of the goal area to play the puck less often in the third period but more frequently after several league rule changes designed to reduce this movement.