Hand laterality research efforts have shown a performance advantage in terms of pointing accuracy and limb speed (movement time—MVT) for the preferred hand (right-hand), and a slight reaction time (RT) performance advantage for the non-preferred hand (left-hand) for rapid manual aiming movements (Flowers, 1975; Roy, 1983; Roy & Elliott, 1986). These performance advantages for the right and left-hands, respectively, are considered an enigma in the motor behavior literature (Magill, 1993) and were investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of skill level, hand laterality, and movement direction during visuomotor processing of female athletes performing manual aiming tasks. Results showed that skill level and hand laterality did not influence the initiation of manual aiming movements; but, left direction movements were initiated faster than right direction movements. Right-hand MVT was faster than left-hand MVT; but, main effects skill level and movement direction were not significant for MVT. Skill level did interact with hand laterality and movement direction for MVT. Also, right-hand right direction movements were the easiest manual aiming tasks to complete while left-hand right direction movements were the most difficult manual aiming tasks to complete. Differences in hemispheric visuomotor processing when performing manual aiming movements based on skill level and hand laterality were discussed. Training implications for manual aiming movements were also discussed.
Anthony P. Marsh, W. Jack Rejeski, Stacy L. Hutton, Cristal L. Brown, Edward Ip and Jack M. Guralnik
Lateral mobility is integral to many activities of daily living involving transfer from one position to another. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the validity and test–retest reliability of a lateral-mobility (LATMOB) task for older adults. Measurements of lateral mobility, balance, and strength and self-reported and performance-based physical functioning were obtained in 63 women and 77 men ≥50 years of age. The LATMOB task was significantly correlated with age, knee-extensor strength, grip strength, functional reach, and one-leg-stance time. Test–retest reliability of the task was excellent. The LATMOB task was highly correlated with the car task. Balance was significantly correlated with time to get into and out of a car and performance on the LATMOB task. The LATMOB task was significantly correlated with the Short Physical Performance Battery score. The LATMOB task is valid and reliable, but additional work is needed to assess its sensitivity to change and predictive validity.
Regina R. Buccello-Stout, Ronita L. Cromwell, Jacob J. Bloomberg and Elbert B. Whorton
The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to sensorimotor adaptation training improved head stabilization in older adults. Sixteen participants, age 66–81 yr, were assigned at random to the control group (n = 8) or the experimental group (n = 8). Both groups first completed 6 trials of walking a foam pathway consisting of a moveable platform that induced a lateral perturbation during walking. Head-in-space and trunk-in-space angular velocities were collected. Participants from both groups then trained twice per week for 4 wk. Both groups walked on a treadmill for 20 min. The control group viewed a static scene. The experimental group viewed a rotating visual scene that provided a perceptual-motor mismatch. After training, both groups were retested on the perturbation pathway test. The experimental group used a movement strategy that preserved head stabilization compared with the controls (p < .05). This training effect was not retained after 4 wk.
Alexander H.K. Montoye, Scott A. Conger, Joe R. Mitrzyk, Colby Beach, Alecia K. Fox and Jeremy A. Steeves
. Deadlift 8. Lateral raise 23. Front squat 9. Lunge 24. Good morning 10. Row 25. Shoulder press 11. Shoulder press 12. Squat 13. Squat inside 14. Thruster 15. Triceps extension Note . Exercises are listed in alphabetical order within each column. Protocol Participants rotated through two sets of 12
Susan J. Leach, Joyce R. Maring and Ellen Costello
was determined during pretesting for each participant. The 16 targets on the Grid are located at 60% (near target) and 80% (far target) of each participant’s average MSL (anterior, posterior, and lateral), thereby individualizing the intervention for each subject. Participants received demonstration
Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo
normal-weight children age 7–9 years old, with higher medio-lateral sway velocity variability in the overweight children. Nevertheless no differences were found between normal-weight and obese children age 10–12 years old. Although differences between obese and normal-weight children have been reported
Peter Leinen, Thomas Muehlbauer and Stefan Panzer
-frequency of 10 Hz. Balance performance was evaluated by calculating the standard deviation ( SD ) of the CoP displacement (cm) in the anterior-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) directions ( Winter, 1995 ). The SD of the CoP was used, because this measure provides information of AP and ML directions
Jeff E. Goodwin
medial/lateral (frontal plane) axes simultaneously and provided an assessment of dynamic postural stability. The stability (stiffness) level of the platform was set at eight. A setting of eight is the most stable platform setting, whereas a setting of one is the least stable setting. Procedure
Telassin Silva Homem, Fernando Silva Guimarães, Maurício Santos Soares, Leandro Kasuki, Mônica Roberto Gadelha and Agnaldo José Lopes
Advances in the knowledge of acromegaly are leading to an increase in the survival rate of acromegalic subjects. This study was conducted to evaluate balance control, risk of falls, and peripheral muscle function in acromegalic older adults. Seventeen older subjects with acromegaly (67 [63–73] years) and 20 paired control subjects were evaluated with balance scales, force platform, and knee isokinetic dynamometry tests. There were significant differences between the groups on several balance and gait scales, with a worse performance and greater risk of falls in the acromegalic older adults. Acromegalic older adults had lower values for peak torque, maximum repetition of the total work, and total work during extension at 240°/s. The acromegalic older adults had higher values in the medial-lateral range. Acromegaly subjects had lateral instability that compromises their body balance and increases the risk of falls. Moreover, there was a propensity for muscle fatigue in these individuals.
Karla A. Kubitz and Daniel M. Landers
This study examined the effects of an 8-week aerobic training program on cardiovascular responses to mental stress. Dependent variables included electrocardiographic activity, blood pressure, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, state anxiety, and state anger. Quantification of indicators of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and central nervous system activity (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, T-wave amplitude, and EEG activity, respectively) allowed examination of possible underlying mechanisms. Subjects (n = 24) were randomly assigned to experimental (training) and control (no training) conditions. Pre- and posttesting examined cardiorespiratory fitness and responses to mental stress (i.e., Stroop and mental arithmetic tasks). MANOVAs identified a significant effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and EEG alpha laterality. The results appear consistent with the hypothesis that enhanced parasympathetic nervous system activity and decreased central nervous system laterality serve as mechanisms underlying certain aerobic training effects.