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Kayla E. Boehm and Kevin C. Miller

. Hyperthermic females cooled 83% faster than hyperthermic males. Abbreviations: BSA/LBM, body surface area-to-lean body mass ratio; BSA/M, body surface area-to-mass ratio; CWI, cold-water immersion; EHS, exertional heat stroke; ht, height; IWI, ice water immersion; LBM, lean body mass; T rec , rectal

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Radamés M.V. Medeiros, Eduardo S. Alves, Valdir A. Lemos, Paulo A. Schwingel, Andressa da Silva, Roberto Vital, Alexandre S. Vieira, Murilo M. Barreto, Edilson A. Rocha, Sergio Tufik and Marco T. de Mello

Context:

Body-composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers.

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between body composition and sport performance in Brazilian Paralympic swimmers 6 mo after training.

Design:

Experimental pre/posttest design.

Setting:

Research laboratory and field evaluations of swimming were conducted to verify the 50-m freestyle time of each athlete.

Participants:

17 Brazilian Paralympic swim team athletes (12 men, 5 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

Body-composition assessments were performed using a BOD POD, and swimming performance was assessed using the 50-m freestyle, which was performed twice: before and after 6 mo of training.

Results:

Increased lean mass and significantly reduced relative fat mass and swimming time (P < .05) were observed 6 mo after training. Furthermore, a positive correlation between body-fat percentage and performance (r = .66, P < .05) was observed, but there was no significant correlation between body density and performance (r = –.14, P > .05).

Conclusions:

After a 6-mo training period, Paralympic swimmers presented reduced fat mass and increased lean body mass associated with performance, as measured by 50-m freestyle time. These data suggest that reduced fat-mass percentage was significantly correlated with improved swimming performance in Paralympic athletes.

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Christine L. Wells and Steven P. Hooker

Physiological variables identified as important factors in athletic performance are discussed in relation to the spinal cord injured (SCI) athlete. These include body composition, pulmonary function, cardiorespiratory efficiency, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic power. SCI athletes are less fat and have a larger lean body mass than nonathletes, and male SCI are less fat than female SCI. Static lung volumes are usually below normal values in SCI subjects, but athletic SCI subjects tend to have higher values than sedentary SCI. Sedentary SCI subjects have lower aerobic power (O2max) than the general able-bodied (AB) sedentary population on tests of arm cranking or wheelchair ergometry. Low-lesion paraplegics generally achieve O2max values comparable to AB subjects. O2max is inversely related to level of injury, that is, the higher the SCI, the lower the O2max. However, elite SCI athletes are capable of achieving very high levels of O2max during arm exercise. SCI subjects respond well to strength and muscular endurance training. Paraplegic subjects achieve higher anaerobic power scores than quadriplegic subjects. Increases in O2max occur at about the same magnitude as in AB subjects. The required intensity level appears to be about 70–80% of maximal heart rate reserve.

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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

studies. 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 The TP, HP, and LP differ in several aspects, such as normalized strength by body mass, 7 peak torque, 7 , 8 and power. 8 However, other studies did not find significant differences in several outcomes for these groups, especially for HP and LP (eg, lean body mass), 9 fat, 9

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Dong-Sung Choi, Hwang-Jae Lee, Yong-II Shin, Ahee Lee, Hee-Goo Kim and Yun-Hee Kim

Med . 1980 ; 51 ( 8 ): 778 – 787 . PubMed ID: 7417144 7417144 12. Lai CC , Tu YK , Wang TG , Huang YT , Chien KL . Effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people: a systematic

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Abby L. Cheng, John A. Merlo, Devyani Hunt, Ted Yemm, Robert H. Brophy and Heidi Prather

female youth ice hockey athletes who had reached menarche compared with those who had not, with an incidence rate ratio of 4.1 (95% CI, 1.0–16.8). These findings are notable because although BMI is not an ideal measure of fat versus lean body mass, body composition is modifiable and further investigation

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Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett and Adam B. Rosen

alignments, patellar position, patellar laxity, and lean body mass. References 1. Crossley KM , Thancanamootoo K , Metcalf BR , Cook JL , Purdam CR , Warden SJ . Clinical features of patellar tendinopathy and their implications for rehabilitation . J Orthop Res . 2007 ; 25 ( 9 ): 1164

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Robert S. Thiebaud, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Tyler Garcia, Yohan Shirazi and Ross McArthur

.1371/journal.pone.0052843 10. Thiebaud RS , Loenneke JP , Fahs CA , et al . The effects of elastic band resistance training combined with blood flow restriction on strength, total bone-free lean body mass and muscle thickness in postmenopausal women . Clin Physiol Funct Imaging . 2013 ; 33 ( 5