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Dylan O. Blain, Thomas Curran and Martyn Standage

physical literacy. This study will, therefore, address this void in the extant literature by testing the relationships between physical literacy and engagement in physical education (PE), leisure-time exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. Physical Literacy One of the most widely cited

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Bo Shen, Nate McCaughtry, Jeffrey J. Martin and Mariane Fahlman

With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents’ motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city school district (N = 603, ages 12–14) completed questionnaires assessing motivational constructs and leisure-time exercise behavior. Knowledge and cardiorespiratory fitness were also assessed with a knowledge test and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test, respectively. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we found that students’ motivation in physical education could be explained from a multi-theoretical perspective. The interactive patterns among different motivation constructs were homogeneous overall and associated with in-class effort, knowledge, and leisure-time exercise behavior. These findings suggest that students’ development in physical education may depend upon a collective impact of changes in knowledge, physical activity ability, and sources of motivation.

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Liz Haslem, Carol Wilkinson, Kevin A. Prusak, William F. Christensen and Todd Pennington

The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school students (N = 280) at the end of a CPE course completed the following: Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire–2, Godin Leisure–Time Exercise Questionnaire, Perceived Competence Scale, and a HRFK Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analysis was used to explore the relationships between the variables of HRFK, perceived competence, motivation, and physical activity. The analysis resulted in a modified model that showed a relationship between perceived competence and physical activity, mediated by introjected and identified regulation. A relationship also existed between HRFK and external regulation indicating students felt controlled. Suggested value-promoting activities could help students value concepts being taught.

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Amy E. Latimer, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and B. Catherine Craven

Using the theory of planned behavior as a theoretical framework, the present study examined psychosocial predictors of exercise intentions and behavior among 124 men and women with spinal cord injury. Theory of planned behavior constructs were measured using an exercise–specific questionnaire for individuals with spinal cord injury. Exercise behavior was assessed using an adapted version of the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Regression analyses indicated that the theory of planned behavior had limited utility in this population. Among individuals with tetrapelgia, perceived behavioral control was the only determinant of exercise intentions and behavior. Among people with paraplegia, none of the theory of planned behavior constructs predicted exercise intentions or behavior. These results have methodological and practical implications for future research and exercise interventions, respectively.

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Matthew O. Fullmer, Carol Wilkinson, Keven A. Prusak, Dennis Eggett and Todd Pennington

( 1998 ) found the PCS to be reliable at alpha level .90. Advantages to the PCS are its brevity and adaptability to study a variety of behaviors ( Carroll & Loumidis, 2001 ; Standage et al., 2005 ). Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ; Godin

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Ken R. Lodewyk

higher emotionality/neuroticism on the relationship between performance goals and leisure-time exercise relationship; and of mastery-approach goals on the relationship between higher extraversion and overall and strenuous-intensity exercise ( Lochbaum et al., 2017 ). In other words, the relationship

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Julie DiMatteo, Cynthia Radnitz, Katharine L. Loeb and Jingwen Ni

enrollment rather than physical activity and frequency. Factors that motivate enrollment in an active physical education course may differ from those that influence leisure-time exercise engagement and maintenance of learned exercise behaviors past course enrollment ( Lackman, Smith, & McNeil, 2015 ). Third

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin

autonomous exercise motivation To tap autonomous motivation in a leisure-time exercise setting, students responded to the Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire 2 ( Mullen & Markland, 1997 ). Participants were asked, “Why do you participate in active sports and/or vigorous PA in your spare time

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Robert W. Motl

disability ( Johnson, Yun, & McCubbin, 2014 ). Recently, promising results have been obtained from the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire when evaluated against accelerometer output in people with multiple sclerosis ( Kinnett-Hopkins, Grover, Yeh, & Motl, 2016 ; Motl, Bollaert, & Sandroff, 2018

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T. Nicole Kirk and Justin A. Haegele

with SCI ( Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Ginis, Wilson, & SHAPE-SCI Research Group, 2010 ; Latimer et al., 2006 ; Latimer & Martin Ginis, 2005 ; Martin Ginis et al., 2017 ; Sweet et al., 2012 ), one study used the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire ( Latimer et al., 2004 ), and two studies used the