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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

to interpret and some lack responsiveness (ie, the ability of an instrument to detect change over time in the construct measured). 25 The Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat) and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) demonstrate potential to overcome barriers

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Rafer S. Lutz, Marc R. Lochbaum, Beth Lanning, Lucinda G. Stinson and Ronda Brewer

Blue-collar workers (N = 203) from a large food-processing plant in the south-western U.S. completed measures of perceived stress and leisure-time exercise at an initial test session in addition to a 2-month follow-up session. Mean age of the sample participants equaled 43.61 (SD = 9.79), and 69.5% of the sample were male, 71.4% were Caucasian, and 74.9% were married/cohabitating. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the cross-lagged relationships between perceived stress and leisure-time exercise at these time points, controlling for gender, marital status, age, and yearly household income. Results indicated that a model with a path from perceptions of Time 1 stress to Time 2 exercise frequency was most parsimonious and provided acceptable model ft, suggesting that perceptions of stress are related to reductions in exercise participation in this population. However, there was little support for a relationship between Time 1 exercise participation and Time 2 perceived stress.

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Danielle Symons Downs, Jennifer S. Savage and Jennifer M. DiNallo

Background:

Scant research has examined the determinants of primary exercise dependence symptoms in youth. Study purposes were to examine sex differences across leisure-time exercise behavior, motivation, and primary exercise dependence symptoms in youth and the extent to which exercise behavior and motivation predicted exercise dependence within the Self-Determination Theory framework.

Methods:

Adolescents (N = 805; mean age = 15 years; 46% girls) completed measures of exercise behavior, motivation, and exercise dependence in health/PE classes.

Results:

One-way ANOVA revealed boys scored higher than girls on leisure-time exercise behavior, exercise dependence symptoms, and most of the exercise motivation subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a) sex, exercise behavior, motivation, and their interaction terms explained 39% of the variance in primary exercise dependence; b) Integrated Regulation and Introjected Regulation were important determinants of exercise dependence; and c) sex moderated the contributions of External Regulation for predicting exercise dependence such that boys in the high and low external regulation groups had higher symptoms than girls in the high and low external regulation groups.

Conclusions:

These preliminary findings support the controlled dimensions of Integrated Regulation (boys, girls), Introjected Regulation (boys, girls), and External Regulation (boys only) are important determinants of primary exercise dependence symptoms.

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Danielle Symons Downs, Guy C. LeMasurier and Jennifer M. DiNallo

Background:

Research examining women’s pregnancy physical activity (PA) behaviors with objective measures is scant. Therefore, 2 studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of pregnant women wearing pedometers and to examine women’s self-reported and objectively measured PA behaviors.

Methods:

Participants were pregnant women (Study 1 N = 50, Study 2 N = 30) who completed the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and wore a Yamax pedometer for 3 consecutive days during free living at 20- and 32-weeks gestation.

Results:

As predicted in Study 1, we found (a) 100% participant agreement in wearing the pedometer and (b) LTEQ min and pedometer-determined indices classified 67% to 86% of the participants as insufficiently active at 20-weeks gestation. In Study 2, as hypothesized, (a) mean steps/d, LTEQ total, strenuous, and mild min of PA were positively associated at 20- and 32-weeks gestation; (b) mean steps/d and LTEQ strenuous min significantly declined from 20- to 32-weeks gestation; and (c) more women were classified as sedentary and low active at 32-weeks (73%) compared with 20-weeks gestation (50%).

Conclusions:

These findings are consistent with previous epidemiological evidence documenting the decline in women’s PA behaviors across the trimesters. They also illustrate that pedometer-determined indices might be a useful tool facilitating PA adoption and maintenance during pregnancy.

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Bang Hyun Kim, Roberta A. Newton, Michael L. Sachs, Peter R. Giacobbi Jr. and Joseph J. Glutting

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-wk intervention that used guided relaxation and exercise imagery (GREI) to increase self-reported leisure-time exercise behavior among older adults. A total of 93 community-dwelling healthy older adults (age 70.38 ± 8.15 yr, 66 female) were randomly placed in either a placebo control group or an intervention group. The intervention group received instructions to listen to an audio compact disk (CD) containing a GREI program, and the placebo control group received an audio CD that contained 2 relaxation tracks and instructions to listen to music of their choice for 6 wk. Results revealed that listening to a GREI CD for 6 wk significantly increased self-reported leisure-time exercise behaviors (p = .03). Further exploration of GREI and its effects on other psychological variables related to perceived exercise behaviors may substantiate its effectiveness.

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Meghan Schreck, Robert Althoff, Meike Bartels, Eco de Geus, Jeremy Sibold, Christine Giummo, David Rubin and James Hudziak

Few studies have explored the relation between withdrawn behavior (WB) and exercise and screen time. The current study used exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of leisure-time exercise behavior (LTEB) and screentime sedentary behavior (STSB) in a clinical sample of youth. Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the relations between WB and LTEB and STSB, conditional on gender. WB was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist, and LTEB and STSB were measured using the Vermont Health Behavior Questionnaire. LTEB and STSB emerged as two separate factors. Gender moderated the structure of STSB only. For boys and girls, WB was inversely related to LTEB but not significantly related to STSB. LTEB and STSB are best represented as distinct, uncorrelated constructs. In addition, withdrawn youth may be at risk for poor health outcomes due to lower rates of LTEB. Mental health clinicians, sports psychologists, and related providers may be uniquely qualified to enhance motivation for sports participation in withdrawn youth.

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Junxin Li, Binbin Yang, Miranda Varrasse, Xiaopeng Ji, MaoChun Wu, Manman Li and Kun Li

sleep in this population ( de Castro Toledo Guimaraes, de Carvalho, Yanaguibashi, & do Prado, 2008 ; Kredlow, Capozzoli, Hearon, Calkins, & Otto, 2015 ). The type of physical activity (e.g., leisure-time exercise vs. nonexercise activity) is an essential factor to consider when trying to maximize

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Jihong Liu, Jinseok Kim, Natalie Colabianchi, Andrew Ortaglia and Russell R. Pate

Background:

We examined the covarying patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among adolescents and their long-term maintenance.

Methods:

Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1995–2002). We used latent class analysis to identify distinct covarying patterns in adolescence. Logistic regression models were used to predict odds of meeting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations (≥5 bouts/week) and exceeding screen time guidelines (>2 hours/day) 6 years later based on their adolescent class profile.

Results:

Five classes for each gender were identified and labeled as low physical activity (PA)/low sedentary behaviors (SED), moderate (Mod) PA/high (HI) SED, Mod PA/low SED, HI PA/low SED, and HI PA (except skating/biking)/low SED. Compared with low PA/low SED, males and females in Mod PA/low SED, HI PA/low SED, and HI PA (except skating/biking)/low SED classes had increased odds of meeting MVPA recommendations in young adulthood. Mod PA/HI SED had higher odds of exceeding screen time guidelines in young adulthood (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for females: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.00−2.81; AOR for males: 3.31, 95% CI: 1.80−6.09).

Conclusions:

Findings are useful to aid the development of multifactorial interventions that promote physical activity and reduce screen time among adolescents transitioning to adulthood.

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Emily L. Mailey, Deirdre Dlugonski, Wei-Wen Hsu and Michelle Segar

Although large numbers of parents are not sufficiently active, inactivity does not have to be inevitable. There are parents who engage in regular exercise, and it is important to understand which goals drive parents to prioritize exercise. In particular, leisure-time exercise is of interest because it

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Danielle Symons Downs, Krista S. Leonard, Jessica S. Beiler and Ian M. Paul

-based care or a home nursing visit at the initial postdischarge for the infant. Telephone interviews with mothers were also conducted at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 6 months postpartum by trained staff to obtain measures of EX, depression, and anxiety. Measures The Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) was