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Bik C. Chow, Thomas L. McKenzie and Lobo Louie

Physical activity engagement during physical education is important for many reasons, including developing physical fitness and movement skills and promoting health. Much more is known about physical activity in elementary than secondary schools. We examined physical activity and how it was influenced by instructor-related and environmental characteristics during 238 lessons taught by 65 physical education specialists in 30 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Trained observers used SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) in randomly selected grade 7–12 classes over a 6-month period. Results showed students engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) about 35% of lesson time, a level similar to that found in U.S. elementary schools and short of the U.S. Healthy People 2010 objective of 50% engagement time. Multiple regression analyses found that six potentially modifiable variables contributed to 35% of the variability in lesson MVPA percent.

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Michalis Stylianou, Tiffany Kloeppel, Pamela Kulinna and Han van der Mars


This study was informed by the bodies of literature emphasizing the role of physical education in promoting physical activity (PA) and addressing teacher fidelity to curricular models.


The purpose of this study was to compare student PA levels, lesson context, and teacher PA promotion behavior among classes where teachers were using the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model with low, moderate, and high fidelity.


Participants were 20 physical education teachers, and their 4th and 5th grade students. Each teacher was observed teaching three times during the study. Fidelity data were collected using a validated observation instrument. PA, lesson context, and teacher behavior data were collected using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). Data analysis included descriptive statistics and group difference tests.


Significant differences among the three fidelity groups were identified in several items of the observation instrument. No significant moderate-to-vigorous PA or lesson context differences were found among the three groups. Students taught by teachers in the high fidelity group spent a significantly higher proportion of lesson time (7.5%) in vigorous PA than students taught by teachers in the low fidelity group. Teachers in the moderate and high fidelity groups spent a significantly higher proportion of lesson time promoting in-class PA than teachers in the low fidelity group.


Fidelity of implementation to the DPE model had little impact on student PA. The findings of this study can inform future researchers about the methodological importance of examining teacher fidelity to curricular models and associated outcomes.

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Cindy H.P. Sit, Thomas L. McKenzie, John M.G. Lian and Alison McManus

This study compared physical education (PE) and recess in two markedly different special schools for children with mild intellectual disabilities; one school had a reputation for focusing on sports (High Sport Focus-HSF) and the other did not (Low Sport Focus-LSF). Data were collected in 24 PE classes and 48 recess periods using a validated observation system. During both PE and recess, HSF students engaged in physical activity (PA) at greater intensity levels, but LSF students accrued more total activity min. Differences in PA during PE between the schools were associated with both lesson context and teacher behavior. The results suggest written (e.g., scheduling) and unwritten policies within schools affect children’s activity levels.

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Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Kim C. Graber, Amelia M. Woods, Tom Templin, Mike Metzler and Naiman A. Khan

measure categorizes student activity, lesson context, and teacher interaction. Over the course of the study, 37 observations of lessons for grades K-8 were conducted. Physical education lessons were observed at random, with the consent of the physical education teachers, to ensure a naturalistic

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Jeffery Kurt Ward, Peter A. Hastie and Kamden Strunk

 al. ( 1995 ) and McKenzie, Marshall, Sallis, and Conway ( 2000 ), MVPA can vary based on gender, lesson context, lesson location (indoors or outside), teacher gender, and numerous other factors. However, a common finding from the aforementioned studies was MVPA typically under the recommended 50% of class

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Dean J. Kriellaars, John Cairney, Marco A.C. Bortoleto, Tia K.M. Kiez, Dean Dudley and Patrice Aubertin

, T.L. ( 2014 ). Physical activity in high school physical education: Impact of lesson context and class gender composition . Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 11 , 127 – 135 . PubMed ID: 23359370 doi:10.1123/jpah.2011-0334 10.1123/jpah.2011-0334 Spiegel , J.B. , & Parent , S

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Stephanie Truelove, Andrew M. Johnson, Shauna M. Burke and Patricia Tucker

.A. , Dahlstrom , V. , Stone , E.J. , . . . Harsha , D.W. ( 1995 ). Children’s activity levels and lesson context during third-grade physical education . Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66, 184 – 193 . PubMed ID: 7481079 doi: 10.1080/02701367.1995.10608832 McKenzie , T.L , Sallis , J