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Nicole J. Smith, Monica A.F. Lounsbery and Thomas L. McKenzie

Background:

Physical education (PE) is recommended as a source for physical activity (PA) and learning generalizable PA skills. Few studies have objectively examined high school PE, specifically its delivery, including PA, lesson contexts, and class gender composition.

Methods:

We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to assess PA during 6 lesson contexts in 47 boys-only, 54 girls-only, and 63 coed lessons from 7 high schools. MANOVA assessed differences based on class gender composition.

Results:

Actual lesson length was 27.7 min, only 65% of the scheduled length of class periods. Students engaged in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) 54% of the time, with boys being more active than girls. Game play was the most dominant context (47%), and little time was allocated to knowledge and skill development. Class size, lesson length, PA, and lesson contexts all differed by class gender composition (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Many differences in the conduct of high school PE are related to class gender composition. Boys accumulated more MVPA than girls. When held, PE lessons contributed about 25% of recommended daily PA minutes; improvements could be made by increasing allocations to fitness and skill practice and reducing transition and management time. Teacher professional development is warranted.

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Katherine A. Skala, Andrew E. Springer, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna M. Hoelscher and Steven H. Kelder

Background:

Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children’s moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE.

Methods:

Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation.

Results:

Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared with indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, P = .037). Larger (P = .044) and longer (P = .001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Findings suggest that children’s activity may be influenced by environmental factors such as class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children’s MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA.

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Cindy H.P. Sit, Thomas L. McKenzie, John M.G. Lian and Alison McManus

This study compared physical education (PE) and recess in two markedly different special schools for children with mild intellectual disabilities; one school had a reputation for focusing on sports (High Sport Focus-HSF) and the other did not (Low Sport Focus-LSF). Data were collected in 24 PE classes and 48 recess periods using a validated observation system. During both PE and recess, HSF students engaged in physical activity (PA) at greater intensity levels, but LSF students accrued more total activity min. Differences in PA during PE between the schools were associated with both lesson context and teacher behavior. The results suggest written (e.g., scheduling) and unwritten policies within schools affect children’s activity levels.

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Robert G. Weaver, Aaron Beighle, Heather Erwin, Michelle Whitfield, Michael W. Beets and James W. Hardin

for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is a widely used DO tool that employs a focal child protocol to assess student activity levels, lesson context, and teacher behaviors during physical education lessons or exercise lessons. 15 This instrument was selected for use in this study to

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Leigh Ann Ganzar, Nalini Ranjit, Debra Saxton and Deanna M. Hoelscher

education . J Sport Exerc Psychol . 2012 ; 34 ( 4 ): 457 – 480 . PubMed ID: 22889689 doi:10.1123/jsep.34.4457 22889689 10.1123/jsep.34.4.457 46. McKenzie TL , Feldman H , Woods SE , et al . Children’s activity levels and lesson context during third-grade physical education . Res Q Exerc Sport

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Connie L. Tompkins, Erin K. Shoulberg, Lori E. Meyer, Caroline P. Martin, Marissa Dennis, Allison Krasner and Betsy Hoza

: 24902754 doi:10.1111/cch.12156 10.1111/cch.12156 24902754 18. Robinson LE , Palmer KK , Webster EK , Logan SW , Chinn KM . The effect of CHAMP on physical activity and lesson context in preschoolers: a feasibility study . Res Q Exerc Sport . 2018 ; 89 ( 2 ): 265 – 271 . PubMed ID: 29617193

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Eva D’Hondt, Fotini Venetsanou, Antonis Kambas and Matthieu Lenoir

’s physical activity levels and associations with lesson context, teacher’s behavior, and environment during preschool physical education . Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27 ( 2 ), 221 – 230 . doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.09.007 Vandorpe , B. , Vandendriessche , J

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Thomas L. McKenzie

education schedule (e.g., adherence to schedule, duration of scheduled and actual lesson length, and number of students participating), lesson context (i.e., minutes and percentage of lesson time spent in management, instruction, fitness, skill drills, game play, and free play), and instructor behavior (e

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Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder and Amelia Mays Woods

.1080/00377996.2014.951472 Sutherland , R. , Campbell , E. , Lubans , D.R. , Morgan , P.J. , Okley , A.D. , Nathan , N. , … Wiggers , J. ( 2016 ). Physical education in secondary schools located in low-income communities: Physical activity levels, lesson context and teacher interaction . Journal of Science and Medicine