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Bakhtyar Tartibian, Ana Maria Botelho Teixeira and Behrouz Baghaiee


The purpose of the current study was to characterize the role of aerobic exercise in the gene expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in untrained men.


Twenty untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to exercise (Exe) and control (Con) groups. The Exe group performed aerobic exercises for eight weeks. ACE mRNA and ADRB2 mRNA were determined by PCR.


The expression of ACE in week 4 and in the Exe group decreased significantly (p < .001). ADRB2 in the Exe group, in week 4 and in week 8, was markedly higher, and blood pressure was significantly lower than in the Con group (p < .001). In the Con group ADRB2 mRNA decreased.


These results suggest that moderate intensity exercise promotes the leukocyte expression of gene markers that may affect blood pressure by improving cardiovascular fitness levels in middle-aged men.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Jeremy P. Loenneke


Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening is characteristic of aging and is associated with morbidity and mortality, independent of age. Research demonstrates that lower extremity muscular strength is associated with mobility, morbidity and mortality; however, no study, to our knowledge, had examined the association between lower extremity muscular strength and LTL, which was the purpose of this brief study.


Data from the 1999–2002 NHANES was used (N = 2410; 50–85 years). Peak isokinetic knee extensor strength (IKES) was objectively measured with LTL assessed from a blood sample.


After adjustments, for every 50 N increase in IKES, participants had a 9% reduced odds (P = .04) of being in the 1st (vs. 4th) LTL quartile.


Lower extremity muscular strength is associated with LTL, suggesting a possible mechanism through which lower extremity muscular strength may be associated with morbidity and mortality.

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Shu-Hui Yeh, Hsiu-Ling Lai, Chiu-Yueh Hsiao, Li-Wei Lin, Yu-Kuan Chuang, Yu-Ying Yang and Kuender D. Yang


Moderate physical activity has been shown to promote immunity. Different moderate physical activities may have different effects on immunity. This study investigated the impacts of a 12-week regular music aerobic exercise (MAE) program on leukocyte distribution, lymphocyte subsets, and lymphocyte polarization.


The study used a case-control design with pretest and posttest. Forty-seven middle-age women were recruited for this study. Three participants dropped out, 22 completed the 12-week MAE program, and the other 22 participants who had heat-intolerance or limited schedule eligibility were enrolled as the control group without the MAE exercise.


Results showed that the MAE exercise for 12 weeks didn’t change red blood cells or total leukocytes but increased lymphocyte counts. The women in MAE group revealed significant increases (P ≤ 0.01) of CD3CD4, CD3CD8, and CD4CD25 cells, associated with Treg polarization showing enhanced FoxP3 but not T-bet, Gata-3, or RORγT expression (P < .01). The control group without exercise revealed insignificant change of lymphocyte subsets or lymphocyte polarization.


This study shows that MAE increases specific lymphocyte subsets and enhances Treg cell differentiation. It is suggested to encourage moderate physical activity of music aerobic exercise to enhance lymphocyte function of middle-aged women.

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Edward E. Pistilli, David C. Nieman, Dru A. Henson, David E. Kaminsky, Alan C. Utter, Debra M. Vinci, J. Mark Davis, Omar R. Fagoaga and Sandra L. Nehlsen-Cannarella

Immune changes in 75 younger (age 37.4 ± 0.9 years) and 23 older (57.0 ± 1.4 years) runners were compared after a competitive marathon, with blood samples collected pre- and immediately and 1.5 hr postrace. Race times were slower for the older group (4.7 ± 0.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.1 hr, p = .015), but both groups performed at similar intensity (83.4 ± 0.9 vs. 82.9 ± 0.5% HRmax). The pattern of change in plasma cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and blood leukocyte subsets did not differ significantly between the groups postrace. Blood lymphocyte counts were 20–24% lower in the older runners at each time point because of reduced T-cell counts. Postrace, plasma levels of IL-1ra, -10, -6, and -8 rose strongly in all runners, and salivary IgA secretion rate decreased, but no group differences in the pattern of change were noted. In conclusion, younger and older runners experienced similar hormonal and immune changes after running a marathon.

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Scott J. Dankel, Jeremy P. Loenneke and Paul D. Loprinzi

-specific mortality. This is of importance given the association between muscle strength and various health-related markers (eg, diabetes prevalence and severity, 4 leukocyte telomere length 5 ), which may help to reduce the prevalence of cancer-specific mortality. 6 Prospective studies on the effects of lower

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Meghan K. Edwards and Paul D. Loprinzi

beneficial effects of muscular strength improvements have also been shown to extend to adults with human immunodeficiency virus 23 and Parkinson’s disease. 24 Of additional note, recent work demonstrates a direct association between lower extremity muscle strength and leukocyte telomere length, with

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Gislaine S. Kogure, Cristiana L. Miranda-Furtado, Daiana C.C. Pedroso, Victor B. Ribeiro, Matheus C. Eiras, Rafael C. Silva, Lisandra C. Caetano, Rui A. Ferriani, Rodrigo T. Calado and Rosana M. dos Reis

/m 2 ]). 30 Telomere Length Measurement Telomere length was measured at 2 points, baseline and after 16 weeks of PRT, using a previously described method. 13 Briefly, genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes, and telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction

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Marcus Colon, Andrew Hodgson, Eimear Donlon and James E.J. Murphy

.F. , Hunkin , J.L. , Kato , B.S. , Richards , J.B. , Gardner , J.P. , Surdulescu , G.L. , . . . Aviv , A. ( 2008 ). The association between physical activity in leisure time and leukocyte telomere length . Archives of Internal Medicine, 168 ( 2 ), 154 – 158 . PubMed ID: 18227361 doi:10

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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

is total white blood cell (WBC) count. A low WBC count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells (leukocytes) in the blood. WBC count has been shown to have an inverse association with overall physical activity and to be independently associated with noncommunicable diseases, such as

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Giovanni Mario Pes, Maria Pina Dore, Alessandra Errigo and Michel Poulain

, 1518 – 1524 . PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/glt054 10.1093/gerona/glt054 Cherkas , L.F. , Hunkin , J.L. , Kato , B.S. , Richards , J.B. , Gardner , J.P. , Surdulescu , G.L. , … Aviv , A. ( 2008 ). The association between physical activity in leisure time and leukocyte telomere length