The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of coaches’ perceptions of their role in the development of life skills in adolescent athletes in two different sport contexts. Semistructured interviews were held with 24 coaches: 12 coaching high school basketball and 12 coaching community swimming. All coaches followed a holistic, athlete-centered approach. Coaches described the life skills they taught, their motivations, and the strategies they used to foster life skills development in practice. Although some differences between the two contexts were identified, the overall results indicate that all coaches fostered the development of life skills through various teaching and transfer strategies, and that coaches had two main motivations: athletes’ needs and their own values. The main results are discussed in light of the literature on life skills in sport and positive youth development, and in terms of methodological considerations. The study concludes with some practical recommendations for coaches.
Christiane Trottier and Sophie Robitaille
Zenzi Huysmans, Damien Clement, Robert Hilliard and Adam Hansell
, and behaviours ( Camiré et al., 2012 ; Lumpkin, 2010 ). Moreover, coaches can help athletes develop personally and emotionally, and facilitate the learning of life skills ( Collins, Gould, Lauer, & Chung, 2009 ; Sackett & Gano-Overway, 2017 ). The development of these psychosocial and behavioural
Martin Camiré, Kelsey Kendellen, Scott Rathwell and Evelyne Felber Charbonneau
The practice of sport in Canadian high schools is justified based on the premise that participation exposes students to experiences that allow them to develop the life skills necessary to become contributing members of society ( Camiré, Werthner, & Trudel, 2009 ). In fact, School Sport Canada
contributes to women’s academic and career achievement outcomes ( Coakley, 2011 ; Troutman & Dufur, 2007 ). The prevailing explanation for the supposedly positive effects of sports participation is a “developmental theory” ( Zeiser, 2011 , p. 1143) that sport improves life skills such as time management
Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter and Nicole D. Bolter
) clearly indicate that acquiring attitudes and behaviors that transfer beyond sport (ie, life skills) is not attained automatically from participation—it is likely to occur when intentionally taught by supportive coaches who provide feedback within a climate that emphasizes effort and improvement rather
Sara Kramers, Martin Camiré and Corliss Bean
, Pollard, & Arthur, 2002 ). Sport-based PYD programs are designed to offer positive growth experiences by exposing youth to environments that foster the development of life skills (e.g., working as a team, being a leader), defined as psychosocial skills that can be learned and/or refined in sport and
Jennifer J. Waldron
There has been a growing trend in examining how life skills can be developed through sport programs (Danish, 2002). Four components of life skills central to the current study were interpersonal communication, problem solving, health maintenance, and identity development (Darden & Gazda, 1996). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of participation in Girls on Track (GOT), a sport-based life-skills program, to the effects of participation in soccer programs and the Girl Scouts. The GOT program is a running program intended to teach girls physical, personal, and social skills. Nineteen girls from the three programs were interviewed individually. Results revealed that all four components of life skills emerged from the interviews with GOT participants. In comparison, only three components emerged for the other two programs. These data suggest that the GOT program may be more successful in delivering life skills compared to the soccer and Girl Scouts programs.
Tarkington J. Newman, Fernando Santos, António Cardoso and Paulo Pereira
to their own development). Throughout the past several decades, PYD has been used across the globe as an overarching framework to help youth sport coaches enhance PYD outcomes, particularly life skill development and life skill transfer ( Pierce, Gould, & Camiré, 2017 ; Santos, Camiré, & Campos
Stéphanie Turgeon, Kelsey Kendellen, Sara Kramers, Scott Rathwell and Martin Camiré
). Thus, because of its school affiliation and developmental mandate, North American high school sport is ideally positioned as an arena for life-skills development. The Mission Statements of High School Sport–Governing Bodies In both Canada and the United States, high school sports are governed at the
Martin Camiré, Pierre Trudel and Tanya Forneris
Whether life skills are developed through sport greatly depends on how coaches create suitable environments that promote the development of youth (Gould & Carson, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine, using Gould and Carson’s (2008) model of coaching life skills, the philosophies and strategies used by model high school coaches to coach life skills and how to transfer these life skills to other areas of life. Interviews were conducted with both coaches and their student-athletes. Results indicated that coaches understood their student-athletes preexisting make up and had philosophies based on promoting the development of student-athletes. Results also demonstrated that coaches had strategies designed to coach life skills and educate student-athletes about the transferability of the skills they learned in sport. Although variations were reported, coaches and student-athletes generally believed that student-athletes can transfer the skills learned in sport to other areas of life. These results are discussed using Gould and Carson’s model and the youth development literature.