The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of coaches’ perceptions of their role in the development of life skills in adolescent athletes in two different sport contexts. Semistructured interviews were held with 24 coaches: 12 coaching high school basketball and 12 coaching community swimming. All coaches followed a holistic, athlete-centered approach. Coaches described the life skills they taught, their motivations, and the strategies they used to foster life skills development in practice. Although some differences between the two contexts were identified, the overall results indicate that all coaches fostered the development of life skills through various teaching and transfer strategies, and that coaches had two main motivations: athletes’ needs and their own values. The main results are discussed in light of the literature on life skills in sport and positive youth development, and in terms of methodological considerations. The study concludes with some practical recommendations for coaches.
Christiane Trottier and Sophie Robitaille
Zenzi Huysmans, Damien Clement, Robert Hilliard and Adam Hansell
, and behaviours ( Camiré et al., 2012 ; Lumpkin, 2010 ). Moreover, coaches can help athletes develop personally and emotionally, and facilitate the learning of life skills ( Collins, Gould, Lauer, & Chung, 2009 ; Sackett & Gano-Overway, 2017 ). The development of these psychosocial and behavioural
Martin Camiré, Kelsey Kendellen, Scott Rathwell and Evelyne Felber Charbonneau
The practice of sport in Canadian high schools is justified based on the premise that participation exposes students to experiences that allow them to develop the life skills necessary to become contributing members of society ( Camiré, Werthner, & Trudel, 2009 ). In fact, School Sport Canada
Sara Kramers, Martin Camiré and Corliss Bean
, Pollard, & Arthur, 2002 ). Sport-based PYD programs are designed to offer positive growth experiences by exposing youth to environments that foster the development of life skills (e.g., working as a team, being a leader), defined as psychosocial skills that can be learned and/or refined in sport and
Martin Camiré, Pierre Trudel and Tanya Forneris
Whether life skills are developed through sport greatly depends on how coaches create suitable environments that promote the development of youth (Gould & Carson, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine, using Gould and Carson’s (2008) model of coaching life skills, the philosophies and strategies used by model high school coaches to coach life skills and how to transfer these life skills to other areas of life. Interviews were conducted with both coaches and their student-athletes. Results indicated that coaches understood their student-athletes preexisting make up and had philosophies based on promoting the development of student-athletes. Results also demonstrated that coaches had strategies designed to coach life skills and educate student-athletes about the transferability of the skills they learned in sport. Although variations were reported, coaches and student-athletes generally believed that student-athletes can transfer the skills learned in sport to other areas of life. These results are discussed using Gould and Carson’s model and the youth development literature.
Amparo Escartí, Ramon Llopis-Goig and Paul M. Wright
-Gunn, 2003 ). In the psychosocial literature, these competencies are called “life skills,” and these types of programs are found under the rubric of positive youth development programs or social and emotional learning programs ( Graczvk & Weissberg, 2003 ). Within models-based practice in physical education
Martin Ian Jones, David Lavallee and David Tod
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the ELITE intervention as a method of increasing the perceived use of communication and organization skills in young people. The participants were three male field hockey players and two female tennis players from a British university. We used a series of single subject, multiple baselines, with minimal meaningful harm and benefit criteria and SMDall effect sizes to evaluate the ELITE intervention. The results revealed no meaningful harm from participating in the program, and the tennis players showed meaningful benefits. SMDall effect sizes all demonstrated that the intervention had a positive effect. Post intervention interviews indicated that participants valued the targeted life skills, and the program was enjoyable. Implications of this study suggest that scholars and practitioners can use the ELITE intervention to increase life skills in young people.
Sarah Carson Sackett and Lori A. Gano-Overway
Sport has the potential to foster the development of life skills, such as initiative, teamwork, emotion regulation, and goal setting, that transcend the fields and courts on which youth participate (Danish, Forneris, Hodge, & Heke, 2004). However, it is often acknowledged that this growth does not occur on its own. One factor that plays a central role in shaping positive sport experiences is the coach (Hellison & Cutforth, 1997). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature on coaching strategies considered best practices for life skills development as well as to provide illustrative examples of many of these practices garnered from a case study of a model coach and the strategies he used in his high school tennis program. The paper concludes with additional practical considerations and recommendations for practitioners, coach educators, and scholars who continue to add to the body of knowledge regarding a coach’s role in positive youth development.
Fernando Santos, Leisha Strachan, Daniel Gould, Paulo Pereira and Cláudia Machado
perhaps have their needs for life-skills development and transfer fulfilled. Typically, positive life-skills development (PLSD) represents an asset-based approach that highlights youth’s qualities, specifically in identifying individuals’ strengths in an attempt to nurture a successful transition to
Tarkington J. Newman, Fernando Santos, António Cardoso and Paulo Pereira
to their own development). Throughout the past several decades, PYD has been used across the globe as an overarching framework to help youth sport coaches enhance PYD outcomes, particularly life skill development and life skill transfer ( Pierce, Gould, & Camiré, 2017 ; Santos, Camiré, & Campos