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James H. Rimmer, Dave Braddock and Glenn Fujiura

Little data exist on the comparison of blood lipids and percent body fat between Down Syndrome and non-DS adults with mental retardation (MR). The following study was undertaken to determine if there were physiological and biochemical differences between these two groups. Subjects included 294 non-DS adults with MR (162 males and 132 females) and 31 adults with Down Syndrome (21 males and 10 females). Level of mental retardation was similar for both groups (males/females, Down vs. non-DS). A two-factor ANOVA with a regression approach was used to analyze the data. Results of the study found that there were no significant differences between the Down Syndrome and non-DS subjects on total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or percent body fat. The present study suggests that the composition of lipoproteins and storage of body fat are similar in Down Syndrome and non-DS adults with mental retardation, and that the risk for developing coronary heart disease appears to be the same for both groups.

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Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr

-body glucose metabolism, 1 lipid oxidation, 2 and is one of the greatest modifiable contributors to the resting metabolic rate. 3 The maintenance of skeletal muscle becomes increasingly important with advancing age, as low levels of muscle mass are strongly correlated with a loss of independence, mobility

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Yves Eberhard, Jacqueline Eterradossi and Bettina Debû

The effects of exercise and of a physical conditioning program on 11 subjects (7 males, 4 females, aged 15 to 20) with Down’s syndrome (DS) were analyzed. Metabolic responses were evaluated before and after two ergometric cycle exercise tests: an incremental exercise to symptom limited VO2 max. and an endurance test performed at 60% of maximal aerobic power. Plasma substrates, electrolytes, catecholamines, lipoprotein lipid profiles, and superoxide dismutase were assayed immediately before and after these tests. The results indicated (a) a low blood lactate level for peak exercise, (b) slow free fatty acid mobilization at the start of exercise, (c) a low level of cholesterol HDL and a high level of pre-beta VLDL at rest, (d) adjustment to nearly normal lipid profiles with endurance activity, and (e) differences between before and after training for superoxide dismutase levels in subjects with DS. These results suggest that endurance training could have long-term effects on the pathophysiological consequences of DS.

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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

relation to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in men with spinal cord injury . Appl Physiol Nutr Metab . 2011 ; 36 ( 1 ): 107 – 114 . PubMed ID: 21326384 doi: 10.1139/H10-091 21326384

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

5 min, 60 min, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h to measure oxidative damage to proteins (carbonylated proteins nanomole of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine/gram/deciliter of proteins), CK levels, and oxidative damage to lipids (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances nmol/mL). Blood samples were taken at 1 min, 1 h

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Leonardo Shigaki, Cynthia Gobbi Alves Araújo, Mariane Guizeline Calderon, Thais Karoline Cezar Costa, Andreo Fernando Aguiar, Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa and Rubens A. da Silva

.1155/2013/615901 10.1155/2013/615901 17. Correa CS , Teixeira BC , Bittencourt A , et al . Effects of high and low volume of strength training on muscle strength, muscle volume and lipid profile in postmenopausal women . J Exerc Sci Fitness . 2014 ; 12 ( 2 ): 62 – 67 . doi:10.1016/j.jesf.2014.07.001 10

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Bailey Peck, Timothy Renzi, Hannah Peach, Jane Gaultney and Joseph S. Marino

. Chest . 2014 ; 145 ( 3 ): 588A . doi:10.1378/chest.1824321 10.1378/chest.1824321 24. Trenell MI , Ward JA , Yee BJ , et al . Influence of constant positive airway pressure therapy on lipid storage, muscle metabolism and insulin action in obese patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea

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Tyler W.D. Muddle, David H. Fukuda, Ran Wang, Joshua J. Riffe, David D. Church, Kyle S. Beyer, Jay R. Hoffman and Jeffrey R. Stout

, E. , Maso , F. , Degoutte , F. , Jouanel , P. , & Lac , G. ( 2001 ). Food restriction, performance, psychological state and lipid values in judo athletes . International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22 ( 6 ), 454 – 459 . PubMed doi:10.1055/s-2001-16244 10.1055/s-2001-16244 Franchini

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

lipid metabolism in chronic spinal cord injury . J Spinal Cord Med . 2001 ; 24 : 266 – 277 . PubMed ID: 11944785 doi:10.1080/10790268.2001.11753584 11944785 10.1080/10790268.2001.11753584 10. Finley MA , Rodgers MM , Keyser R . Impact of physical exercise on controlling secondary conditions

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James H. Rimmer, David Braddock and Glenn Fujiura

A body mass index (BMI) greater than 27 has been cited as a risk factor for heart disease and diabetes mellitus resulting from excess weight. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between BMI (>27) and two other obesity indices–height-weight and percent body fat–as well as to investigate the relationship between BMI and three blood lipid parameters–total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 329 adults with mental retardation (MR). Males were significantly taller and heavier than females, but females had a significantly higher BMI. Kendall’s Tau-C revealed a significant association between BMI and each of the following: height-weight, percent body fat, LDL-C, and HDL-C. However, there were a significant number of false negatives and false positives on each of the criteria. The congruence between at-risk BMI and two other obesity parameters (height-weight and percent body fat) in a population of adults with MR is not strong. Professionals should employ the BMI along with skinfold measures to assess a person’s at-risk status for excess weight.