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Paul J. Collings, Diane Farrar, Joanna Gibson, Jane West, Sally E. Barber and John Wright

higher concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), 8 established precursors of CVD. 9 It is unknown if maternal physical activity confers similar benefits, that is a more favorable blood lipid profile, to the developing fetus. This is important to investigate, as cord blood lipid

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Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Because of the strong association between cardiovascular diseases and morbidity, mortality, and high public health expenditures, 1 , 2 reductions in cardiovascular risk factors, such as improvements in lipid profiles and inflammatory markers, are therapeutic targets in numerous health studies 3

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Rochelle R. Costa, Adriana C.K. Buttelli, Leandro Coconcelli, Laura F. Pereira, Alexandra F. Vieira, Alex de O. Fagundes, Juliano B. Farinha, Thais Reichert, Ricardo Stein and Luiz F.M. Kruel

Dyslipidemias are heterogeneous disorders of lipid metabolism arising from multiple etiologies that result in alterations in blood lipoproteins (low-density lipoprotein—LDL and high-density lipoprotein—HDL) and lipid (total cholesterol—TC and triglycerides—TG) concentrations. 1 In elderly women

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Evelien Mertens, Peter Clarys, Johan Lefevre, Ruben Charlier, Sara Knaeps and Benedicte Deforche

Background:

Longitudinal evidence concerning the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and blood lipids and between anthropometric parameters (ANTP) and blood lipids is limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between changes in CRF and ANTP and changes in blood lipids.

Methods:

In 2002–2004 and 2012–2014, 652 participants were tested. CRF was measured as VO2peak using a maximal ergometer test. Waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used as ANTP. Blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. A linear regression analysis was performed to investigate associations between changes in CRF and ANTP and changes in blood lipids.

Results:

After adjustment a decrease in CRF was associated with an increase in triglycerides and a decrease in HDL cholesterol in men. An increase in WC was associated with an increase in TC, LDL cholesterol and ratio total/HDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol, while an increase in BMI was associated with an increase in ratio total/HDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol.

Conclusions:

WC and BMI were more longitudinally associated with blood lipids compared with CRF. Improving ANTP can enhance the blood lipid profile, while CRF had only limited influence.

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Ehsan Ghahramanloo, Adrian W. Midgley and David J. Bentley

Background:

There is little information regarding the effects of concurrent training (endurance and resistance training performed in the same overall regimen) on blood lipid profile in sedentary male subjects. This study compared the effects of 3 different 8-wk training programs [endurance training (ET), strength training (ST) and concurrent training (CT)] on blood lipid profile and body composition in untrained young men.

Methods:

A total of 27 subjects were randomly allocated to an ET, ST or CT group which performed either progressive treadmill (ET), free weight (ST) or both the endurance and strength training requirements for 8 weeks.

Results:

High-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein profiles significantly improved in the ET and CT groups (P < .01) but not in the ST group. Triglyceride and total cholesterol profiles significantly improved in all 3 training groups. Total fat mass significantly decreased in the ET and CT groups (P < .001) but not in the ST group, whereas fat free mass significantly increased in the ST and CT groups (P < .01) but not in the ET group.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that CT can be used to simultaneously improve both the serum lipid profile and body composition of previously untrained, apparently health young men.

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John S. Green, Peter W. Grandjean, Shelly Weise, Stephen F. Crouse and J. James Rohack

Although endurance exercise and supplemental estrogen have both been shown to improve serum lipid cardiac risk profiles in postmenopausal women, data regarding a possible synergistic influence are scarce and inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such a synergistic influence could be demonstrated. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, HDL3-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG) were obtained from postmenopausal women (N = 45) in each of 4 groups: currently exercising and taking estrogen replacement, exercising and not taking estrogen, sedentary and taking estrogen, and sedentary and not taking estrogen. HDL-C was on average 21% higher (p < .05) and the HDL-C:LDL-C ratio on average 45% higher (p < .05) in the exercise-plus-estrogen group than in any of the other 3 groups. It was concluded that the combination of endurance exercise and estrogen replacement might be associated with better lipid coronary risk profiles in postmenopausal women than either intervention alone.

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Peter Pagels, Anders Raustorp, Trevor Archer, Ulf Lidman and Marie Alricsson

Background:

Health organizations suggest that adults ought to engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity daily physical activity. This study investigated the effects of a 30-minute single daily bout of brisk walking upon risk factors for coronary heart disease with blood lipid profile in particular.

Methods:

Thirty-three (25–45 y) adults, were randomly assigned into an exercise group (EG; n = 16, 9w) and a control group (CG; n = 17, 6w). The EG walked briskly 30 minutes daily during the 3-week test period. Compliance/adherence was maximal throughout the 3-week intervention due to stringent daily monitoring.

Results:

The EG showed a significant decrease in concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) during the intervention period. A significant inverse correlation between Δ energy expenditure/day and Δ LDL-C (r = –0.39, P < .05) and an improvement in weight and BMI in the EG was found. Average steps during 30 minutes brisk walking bout was 3669 steps/bout generating a mean energy expenditure of 191 kcal/ bout.

Conclusions:

The most unique findings were that daily single bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity for 30 minutes, during 3 weeks, induced favorable effects upon body weight, BMI, and blood concentration of LDL-C and TC in healthy adults.

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Jesper Nørregaard, Martin Gram, Andreas Vigelsø, Caroline Wiuff, Anja Birk Kuhlman, Jørn Wulff Helge and Flemming Dela

We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent retraining on cardiovascular risk factors in 17 young (Y; 23.4 ± 0.5 years) and 15 older adult (O; 68.1 ± 1.1 years) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged. Daily physical activity decreased by 31 ± 9% (Y) and 37 ± 9% (O) (p < .001). Maximal oxygen uptake decreased with inactivity (Y) and always increased with training. Visceral fat mass decreased (p < .05) with training. Concentrations of lipids in blood were always highest in the older adults. FFA and glycerol increased with reduced activity (p < .05), but reverted with training. Training resulted in increases in HDL-C (p < .05) and a decrease in LDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio (p < .05). A minor reduction in daily physical activity for two weeks increased blood lipids in both young and older men. Six weeks of training improved blood lipids along with loss of visceral fat.

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Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Lucas Gonçalves da Cruz, Camilo Luís Monteiro Lourenço, Giovana Castilho Ribeiro, Marco Aurélio Ferreira de Jesus Leite, Fernando Freitas Neves, Mário Leon Silva-Vergara and Edmar Lacerda Mendes

Background:

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with high total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglyceride (TG), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The natural course of the HIV infection reduces the high-density lipoprotein level (HDL-c). Thus, physical exercise plays a key role in reducing the effects of HAART and HIV.

Methods:

Thirty people living with HIV (PLHIV) were randomized to the nonlinear resistance training (NLRT) and control (CON) groups. The NLRT group underwent 12 weeks of resistance training, whereas the CON group maintained usual daily activities. All volunteers underwent anthropometric, body composition, and biochemical assessments at the beginning and end of 12 weeks.

Results:

After 12 weeks, the NLRT group had increased lean body mass (P < .0001), and a reduction in body fat mass (P < .0001) and body fat percentage (P < .0001). The levels of TC (P < .0001), LDL-c (P = .049), TG (P < .0001), and CRP (P = .004) were reduced, and the HDL-c level increased (P < .0001).

Conclusion

Twelve weeks of NLRT causes beneficial changes in the body composition, lipid profile, and inflammation markers in PLHIV, and it can be used in this patient population.

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José Joaquín Muros, Mikel Zabala, María Jesús Oliveras-López, Paula Rodríguez Bouzas, Emily Knox, José Ángel Rufián-Henares and Herminia López-García de la Serrana

Background:

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional education and vigorous physical activity on health-related parameters.

Methods:

The sample group consisted of 134 children from 5 rurally located schools. Participants were divided between 5 different experimental groups: control group (CG), physical activity group (PA), nutritional education group (NE), combined intervention group (PA+NE), and a combined intervention group with additional substitution of normally used oil for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO; PA+NE+EVOO). The intervention consisted of 60 minute sessions of physical activity held twice a week as well as nutritional education sessions held over 6 months.

Results:

Students in the groups receiving physical activity reduced their fat percentage and increased their muscle mass post intervention. At posttest the lipid profile improved in all intervention groups. The proportion of macronutrients and dietary cholesterol improved in the groups receiving nutritional education. The posttest comparison showed significantly lower fat percentage, sum of skinfolds and waist circumference in NE relative to CG and PA relative to CG. Diastolic blood pressure and glycaemia were significantly lower in PA+NE+EVOO relative to CG.

Conclusion:

A school-based program consisting of nutritional education or nutritional education plus a physical activity program showed a positive effect on health-related parameters in children.