small circle represents ‘pretty good’. The PMSC is the first tool to match perception items to items assessed in a FMS battery. In the version that matches the American Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd edition (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ), perception in six locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal
Lisa M. Barnett and Owen Makin
Sarah Burkart, Jasmin Roberts, Matthew C. Davidson and Sofiya Alhassan
-taught locomotor-based PA (LB-PA) program on the locomotor skills and PA levels of minority preschool-aged children. A brief description of the participants and intervention is provided here, with further details presented elsewhere. 17 Study participants were low socioeconomic status preschool-aged children (61
Lisa M. Barnett, Avigdor Zask, Lauren Rose, Denise Hughes and Jillian Adams
Fundamental movement skills are a correlate of physical activity and weight status. Children who participated in a preschool intervention had greater movement skill proficiency and improved anthropometric measures (waist circumference and BMI z scores) post intervention. Three years later, intervention girls had retained their object control skill advantage. The study purpose was to assess whether at 3-year follow up a) intervention children were more physically active than controls and b) the intervention effect on anthropometrics was still present.
Children were assessed at ages 4, 5, and 8 years for anthropometric measures and locomotor and object control proficiency (Test of Gross Motor Development-2). At age 8, children were also assessed for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (using accelerometry). Several general linear models were run, the first with MVPA as the outcome, intervention/control, anthropometrics, object control and locomotor scores as predictors, and age and sex as covariates. The second and third models were similar, except baseline to follow-up anthropometric differences were the outcome.
Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560), with 111 children having complete data. There were no intervention control differences in either MVPA or anthropometrics.
Increased skill competence did not translate to increased physical activity.
Leah E. Robinson, Kara K. Palmer, Jacqueline M. Irwin, Elizabeth Kipling Webster, Abigail L. Dennis, Sheri J. Brock and Mary E. Rudisill
This study examined the effect of demonstration conditions (multimedia and live) in school-age children on performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition (TGMD-2) locomotor and object control subscale raw scores, and participants’ enjoyment in the preoperational and operational stages of cognitive development. Forty-five children ages 5–10 years were divided into two age groups: younger (n = 21, M age = 5.95 years, SD = .80) and older (n = 24, M age = 8.96 years, SD = .86). Children completed the TGMD-2 under two counterbalanced conditions: live and multimedia demonstration. Immediately following each testing condition, children ranked their enjoyment and completed a semistructured interview. Paired sample t tests examined motor skill and enjoyment differences in each age group. For both groups, no statistically significant differences were present for motor skill performance or participants’ enjoyment between the two demonstration conditions (p ≥ .05). Overall, 44.5% of participants preferred the multimedia demonstration, while 32.5% preferred the live demonstration. Mixed responses were reported by 22.5% of participants. Within age groups, younger participants preferred the multimedia demonstration more than older participants (multimedia = 50%, 41%; live = 23%, 41%, respectively). This study provides evidence that multimedia demonstration may be suitable for administration of the TGMD-2.
Farzad Mohammadi, Abbas Bahram, Hasan Khalaji, Dale A. Ulrich and Farhad Ghadiri
into locomotor skills (i.e., running and jumping) and object control skills (i.e., catching and kicking a ball; Haywood & Getchell, 2009 ). A large body of research indicates that competence in fundamental motor skills in childhood might be related to physical activity participation as children age
Isaac Estevan, Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt, Octavio Álvarez, Isabel Castillo and Lisa Barnett
The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) is a process-oriented scale that provides qualitative information on children’s motor competence. The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties by examining the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the TGMD-3. A sample of 178 typically developing children (47.5% girls) between the ages 3 and 11 years participated in this study. Reliability and the within-network psychometric properties of TGMD-3 were examined by using internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability indexes were excellent (> 0.89). A two-factor structure model was hypothesized and an alternative unifactorial model was also tested. Adequate fit indexes in both a two-factor model [ball skills seven items and locomotor skills six items (χ2 (64) = 139.200, p < .010, RMSEA = 0.073, SRMR = 0.050, NNFI = 0.964, CFI = 0.970)] and a one-factor model [(χ2 (65) = 157.666, p < .010, RMSEA = 0.084, SRMR = 0.055, NNFI = 0.956, CFI = 0.963)] were found. The Spanish version of the TGMD-3 is thus suitable for studying children’s actual motor competence level in terms of locomotor and ball skills and also in terms of fundamental movement skills.
Lisa M. Barnett, Leah E. Robinson, E. Kipling Webster and Nicola D. Ridgers
The purpose was to determine the reliability of an instrument designed to assess young children’s perceived movement skill competence in 2 diverse samples.
A pictorial instrument assessed 12 perceived Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) based on the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition. Intra-Class Correlations (ICC) and internal consistency analyses were conducted. Paired sample t tests assessed change in mean perceived skill scores. Bivariate correlations between the intertrial difference and the mean of the trials explored proportional bias.
Sample 1 (S1) were culturally diverse Australian children (n = 111; 52% boys) aged 5 to 8 years (mean = 6.4, SD = 1.0) with educated parents. Sample 2 (S2) were racially diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged American children (n = 110; 57% boys) aged 5 to 10 years (mean = 6.8, SD = 1.1). For all children, the internal consistency for 12 FMS was acceptable (S1 = 0.72, 0.75, S2 = 0.66, 0.67). ICCs were higher in S1 (0.73) than S2 (0.50). Mean changes between trials were small. There was little evidence of proportional bias.
Lower values in S2 may be due to differences in study demographic and execution. While the instrument demonstrated reliability/internal consistency, further work is recommended in diverse samples.
Bronagh McGrane, Danielle Powell, Sarahjane Belton and Johann Issartel
), which may affect their sports-specific skill development and, as a result, their PA participation ( Gallahue et al., 2012 ; Robinson, Logan, Webster, Getchell, & Pfeiffer, 2015 ). FMS can be broken down into subtests of skills: locomotor, object control, and stability skills ( Burton & Miller, 1998
Lisa E. Bolger, Linda A. Bolger, Cian O’ Neill, Edward Coughlan, Wesley O’Brien, Seán Lacey and Con Burns
have been found to be related to greater participation in physical activity and sport ( Gallahue & Ozmun, 2006 ; Logan, Robinson, Wilson, & Lucas, 2011 ). They are often categorized into locomotor skills, involving the movement of the body from one location to another (e.g., running and jumping
Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang
application, and it is the setting where children optimize their social, emotional, and cognitive development. FMS, including locomotor (e.g., running, hopping, sliding) and object-control skills (e.g., dribbling, throwing, passing), are commonly developed through four developmental levels, namely, from pre