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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

their associated protocols have established validity and reliability in children, and are designed to give an objective measurement of gross motor skill proficiency. The four locomotor skills (run, skip, vertical jump, and balance) and three object-control skills (stationary bounce, kick, and catch

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Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

fluctuations, the past two decades have provided evidence that the structure of variability may provide alternative and highly valuable information about the overall organization and adaptability of the locomotor system. The purpose of this review is to present contemporary perspectives regarding the role of

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Samuel W. Logan, E. Kipling Webster, Nancy Getchell, Karin A. Pfeiffer and Leah E. Robinson

The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence of the relationship between fundamental motor skills (FMS) competence and physical activity by qualitatively describing results from 13 studies that met rigorous inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: (a) published in a peer-review journal, (b) participants were between the ages of 3–18, (c) participants were typically developing, (d) FMS was measured by a process-oriented assessment, (e) assessed physical activity, (f) related FMS and physical activity through statistical procedures, and (g) printed in English. Databases were searched for relevant articles using key terms related to FMS and physical activity. Evidence suggested low to moderate relationships between FMS competence and physical activity in early childhood (r = .16 to .48; R 2 = 3–23%, 4 studies), low to high relationships in middle to late childhood (r = .24 to .55; R 2 = 6–30%, 7 studies), and low to moderate relationships in adolescence (r = .14 to .35; R 2 = 2–12.3%, 2 studies). Across ages, object control skills and locomotor skills were more strongly related to physical activity for boys and girls, respectively. Future research should emphasize experimental and longitudinal research designs to provide further understanding of the relationship between FMS competence and physical activity.

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Mark S. Dyreson

). In the blink of an evolutionary eye, from the perspective of geological and biological time, Heinrich’s ( 2002 ) “super endurance predators” clambered to the apex of the food chain. They were performance optimizers of the first order. The Rise of Locomotor Cultures How, in the period of human history

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent and Sarah Burkart

used multiple keywords including preschool, head start, headstart, early childhood, childcare center, daycare, physical activity, health behavior, exercise, physical education, behavior change, inactivity, sedentary behavior, recess, playtime, structured activity, play time, locomotor skills, physical

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Peter Hastie

mastered their fundamental locomotor skills of skipping, sliding, hopping, running, jumping, leaping, and galloping before they enter elementary school ( Clark et al., 2002 ). Later we include the skills that are performed in timed situations, like swimming and running, as well as skills that are performed

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David I. Anderson

consequences of locomotor experience in infants with and without developmental disabilities ( Campos et al., 2000 ; Dahl et al., 2013 ; Feldner, Logan, & Galloway, 2016 ; Huang & Chen, 2017 ; Uchiyama et al., 2008 ). See Figure  2 for an example of the PMD used in Uchiyama et al. ( 2008 ). Figure 2 —The

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Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff and Ronald F. Zernicke

life, Scott declared that “faulty mechanics hasten the ageing process” ( Scott, 1970 ). In the evolutionary context, locomotor efficiency is in itself a powerful driver of fitness, as it extends a species’ life span ( Priede, 1977 ). Performance metrics in a variety of movement tasks including walking

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Gregory J. Welk

Human Services, 2008 ) make clear distinctions between absolute and relative indicators, but relative intensity is rarely considered when interpreting physical activity data in research applications. Another key difference in methods is that monitor-based methods capture primarily locomotor activities

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Thomas A. Stoffregen

, NJ : Erlbaum . Mantel , B. , Bardy , B.G. , & Stoffregen , T.A. ( 2010 ). Locomotor assessment of whether an object is reachable . Ecological Psychology, 22 , 192 – 211 . doi:10.1080/10407413.2010.496665 10.1080/10407413.2010.496665 Mantel , B. , Stoffregen , T.A. , Campbell , A