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Rodrigo de M. Baldon, Daniel F.M. Lobato, Leonardo Furlan and Fábio Serrão

The purpose of this study was to compare lower limb kinematics between genders during stair descent. Fifteen females and fifteen males who were healthy and active were included in this study. The lower limb kinematics (pelvis, femur and knee) in the coronal and transversal planes were assessed during stair descent at 30°, 40°, 50° and 60° of knee flexion. The study found that females showed greater knee medial rotation for all the knee flexion angles (P = .02−.001), greater femoral adduction (P = .01 for all variables), with exception for 30° (P = .13), and greater femoral lateral rotation at 60° (P = .04). Females also showed a trend to have greater knee valgus at all the knee flexion angles (P = .06−.11) as well as less contralateral pelvis elevation at 50° and 60° (P = .10 and .12, respectively). This study showed that females carry out the stair descent with a lower limb alignment that might predispose them to develop overuse knee injuries, such as the iliotibial band syndrome and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Further prospective investigations should be carried out to verify whether these variables are factors that could predict these knee injuries.

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Arnel Aguinaldo and Andrew Mahar

This study evaluated the effects of running shoes—with two types of cushioning column systems—on impact force patterns during running. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected from 10 normal participants wearing shoes with the following cushions: 4-column multicellular urethane elastomer (Shoe 1), 4-column thermoplastic polyester elastomer (Shoe 2), and 1-unit EVA foam (Shoe 3). Participants exhibited significantly lower impact force (p = .02) and loading rate (p = .005) with Shoe 2 (1.84 ± 0.24 BW; 45.6 ± 11.6 BW/s) compared to Shoe 1 (1.94 ± 0.18 BW; 57.9 ± 12.1 BW/s). Both cushioning column shoes showed impact force characteristics similar to those of a top-model running shoe (Shoe 3), and improved cushioning performance over shoes previously tested in similar conditions. Alterations in impact force patterns induced by lower limb alignment and running speed were negligible since participants did not differ in ankle position, knee position, or speed during all shod running trials. Ankle plantarflexion, however, was higher for barefoot running, indicating an apparent midfoot strike. Mechanical testing of each shoe during physiologic, cyclic loading demonstrated that Shoe 3 had the greatest stiffness, followed by Shoe 2 and Shoe 1. Shoe 1 was the least stiff of the two shoes with cushioning column systems, yet it displayed a significantly higher impact loading rate during running, possibly due to rearfoot motion alterations induced by the stiffer shoe. This study showed that even in similar shoe types, impact force and loading rate values could vary significantly with midsole cushion constructions. The findings of this study suggest that using these newer running shoes may be effective for runners who want optimal cushioning during running.

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Bernard Liew, Kevin Netto and Susan Morris

performed in the landing phase, as compared to a landing where lower limb alignment was more extended (ie, less muscular component of leg stiffness). 41 When translated into running at velocities faster than an individual’s preferred pace, the greater muscular component to leg stiffness may keep the

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Sarah P. Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P. Kraszewski, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M. Hillstrom and Howard J. Hillstrom

Royal Australian Air Force recruits. Part 1: prospective cohort study . Mil Med. 2005 ; 170 ( 7 ): 623 – 628 . PubMed doi: 10.7205/MILMED.170.7.623 16130646 4. Carvalho ACA , Hespanhol LC , Costa LOP , Lopes AD . The association between runners’ lower limb alignment with running

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Eric Foch and Clare E. Milner

variability in female runners with a history of ITBS. Acknowledgment The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. References 1. Lun V , Meeuwisse WH , Stergiou P , Stefanyshyn D . Relation between running injury and static lower limb alignment in recreational runners . Br J Sports Med

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Tsuyoshi Saida, Masayuki Kawada, Daijiro Kuroki, Yuki Nakai, Takasuke Miyazaki, Ryoji Kiyama and Yasuhiro Tsuneyoshi

knee kinematics three months after total knee replacement . Gait & Posture, 41 ( 2 ), 624 – 629 . PubMed ID: 25701011 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.01.010 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.01.010 Andrews , M. , Noyes , F.R. , Hewett , T.E. , & Andriacchi , T.P. ( 1996 ). Lower limb alignment and foot