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James R. Broatch, David J. Bishop and Shona Halson

metabolism progressively increases with sprint duration and the number of sprints. 11 , 12 As such, components of aerobic metabolism like blood flow and oxygen uptake/delivery may be important determinants of repeated-sprint ability. Lower limb compression garments have previously been suggested to provide

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Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie and Hiroaki Kanehisa

” muscles that are prime movers of the task and responsible for its performance. Sprinting is a motor task in which the body mass of a runner is rapidly propelled forward by a propulsive force produced by lower-limb joint torques. Thus, identifying the key lower-limb muscles in sprinting is essential to

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Nicola Giovanelli, Filippo Vaccari, Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Jasmine Copetti, Marco Garra, Lea Biasutti and Stefano Lazzer

maintained during the effort. 17 In turn, our research group has also observed that Cr is affected by muscle power of lower limb extensors. 17 Hence, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SMFR treatment on Cr. In addition, we evaluated the effects of SMFR on lower limbs’ muscle

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Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Enrico Rejc, Bostjan Simunic, Guglielmo Antonutto and Stefano Lazzer

Purpose:

To investigate the effects of an uphill marathon (43 km, 3063-m elevation gain) on running mechanics and neuromuscular fatigue in lower-limb muscles.

Methods:

Maximal mechanical power of lower limbs (MMP), temporal tensiomyographic (TMG) parameters, and muscle-belly displacement (D m) were determined in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after the competition in 18 runners (age 42.8 ± 9.9 y, body mass 70.1 ± 7.3 kg, maximal oxygen uptake 55.5 ± 7.5 mL · kg−1 · min−1). Contact (t c) and aerial (t a) times, step frequency (f), and running velocity (v) were measured at 3, 14, and 30 km and after the finish line (POST). Peak vertical ground-reaction force (Fmax), vertical displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), and vertical (k vert) and leg (k leg) stiffness were calculated.

Results:

MMP was inversely related with race time (r = –.56, P = .016), t c (r = –.61, P = .008), and Δz (r = –.57, P = .012) and directly related with Fmax (r = .59, P = .010), t a (r = .48, P = .040), and k vert (r = .51, P = .027). In the fastest subgroup (n = 9) the following parameters were lower in POST (P < .05) than at km 3: t a (–14.1% ± 17.8%), Fmax (–6.2% ± 6.4%), k vert (–17.5% ± 17.2%), and k leg (–11.4% ± 10.9%). The slowest subgroup (n = 9) showed changes (P < .05) at km 30 and POST in Fmax (–5.5% ± 4.9% and –5.3% ± 4.1%), t a (–20.5% ± 16.2% and –21.5% ± 14.4%), t c (5.5% ± 7.5% and 3.2% ± 5.2%), k vert (–14.0% ± 12.8% and –11.8% ± 10.0%), and k leg (–8.9% ± 11.5% and –11.9% ± 12%). TMG temporal parameters decreased in all runners (–27.35% ± 18.0%, P < .001), while D m increased (24.0% ± 35.0%, P = .005), showing lower-limb stiffness and higher muscle sensibility to the electrical stimulus.

Conclusions:

Greater MMP was related with smaller changes in running mechanics induced by fatigue. Thus, lower-limb power training could improve running performance in uphill marathons.

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Bryce Dyer, Siamak Noroozi, Philip Sewell and Sabi Redwood

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of lower-limb running prostheses and stakeholders’ perceptions of fairness in relation to their use in competitive disability sport. A Delphi study was conducted over three rounds to solicit expert opinion in a developing area of knowledge. High levels of consensus were obtained. The findings suggest that the prosthesis is defined as a piece of sporting equipment to restore athletes’ function to enable them to take part in disability sport. In addition, the panel determined that the development of this technology should be considered to be integral to the sport’s ethos. Crucially, prostheses technology should be monitored and have limits placed upon it to ensure fairness for both participants and stakeholders.

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Ryan G. Timmins, Baubak Shamim, Paul J. Tofari, Jack T. Hickey and Donny M. Camera

groups) would promote a lengthening of BFlh fascicle length with reductions in pennation angle and improvements in lower limb strength. Whereas, it was hypothesized that the END stimulus would result in a shortening of BFlh fascicles, increases in pennation angle, and no changes in lower limb strength

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Felipe García-Pinillos, Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Pedro A. Latorre-Román, Antonio Pantoja-Vallejo and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo

structures assessed. Whereas the current work evaluated arch stiffness, defined as the change in AHI due to the increase in load between sitting and standing conditions, Spurrs et al 6 obtained musculotendinous stiffness of the lower limb through the oscillation technique by performing an isometric

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Adam Beard, John Ashby, Ryan Chambers, Franck Brocherie and Grégoire P. Millet

-related parameters in world-level rugby union players during a preparation phase preceding an international competition. The main findings were that 4 RSH sessions over a 2-week shock microcycle preparation period resulted in greater improvements (ie, higher lower-limb repeated power output) than similar training in

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Montassar Tabben, Daniele Conte, Monoem Haddad and Karim Chamari

, Kizami-Zuki, Gyaku-zuki, Oi-zuki, etc). Lower limb actions represent any kicking techniques (eg,  Mae-geri, Uko-geri , Mawashi-geri , etc). Throwing is defined as any grappling techniques that involve off-balancing an opponent, and throwing him/her to the ground regardless of the fact that it leads to punch

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Pierre Samozino, Jean Romain Rivière, Jérémy Rossi, Jean-Benoit Morin and Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

The ability to perform ballistic muscle contractions, as during jumps, changes of direction, and first step of a sprint, is determinant in numerous sport activities (team sports, track and field, and martial arts). It depends on both the maximal power output (relative to body mass) lower limbs can