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Harsh H. Buddhadev and Philip E. Martin

older participants. They concluded that the coactivation of antagonists helps explain the greater energy expenditure of walking typically observed in older adults. With respect to cycling, most research on energy expenditure and lower limb electromyography (EMG) has focused on younger adults. Numerous

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Willemijn M.J. van Rooij, H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons, Herwin L.D. Horemans, Malou H.J. Fanchamps, Fred A. de Laat and Johannes B.J. Bussmann

-Emons, 2013 ; Lord et al., 2011 ). For people with a physical disability, such as lower-limb amputation, it is more difficult to perform regular daily activities, and therefore they are at extra risk for unfavorable physical behavior. People with a lower-limb amputation are an important patient group within

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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis

Human lower limbs contribute to locomotion in multiple ways; acting as springs, as force absorbing dampers, or as actuators ( Brown, O’Donovan, Hasselquist, Corner, & Schiffman, 2016 ; Raynor, Yi, Abernethy, & Jong, 2002 ). The progression of ground reaction forces (GRF) through the lower limbs

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Tanya Trayers, Debbie A. Lawlor, Kenneth R. Fox, Jo Coulson, Mark Davis, Afroditi Stathi and Tim Peters

Associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with objectively measured lower limb function in adults age 70 and older were studied. Lower limb function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and PA by an accelerometer providing mean daily counts per minute (CPM), mean daily steps and minutes of moderate or vigorous PA (MVPA) per day. A minority (32 [13%]) scored low (≤6 out of a maximum of 12) on the SPPB, but only 3 (1%) achieved recommended PA levels. Adjusting for confounders, the odds ratio of low SPPB (≤6) comparing those in the lowest one third to highest two thirds of mean CPM was 55 (95%CI: 6, 520); for mean steps per day it was 23 (95%CI: 4, 137) and for minutes of MVPA per day 56 (95%CI: 6, 530). Low levels of PA are common and are associated with poor levels of lower limb function in older adults.

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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Caroline P. Dias

CT on the muscular strength of older adults’ lower limbs. Material and Methods Search Procedures This systematic review followed the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of works related to the effects of eccentric training on the muscular strength

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Mati Pääsuke, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva, Kadri Joost, Karin Mõttus and Pille Taba

The lower extremity performance in elderly female patients with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease (PD; n = 12) and controls (n = 16) was compared. Isometric dynamometry and force-plate measurements were used. PD patients had lower (p < .05) bilateral (BL) maximal isometric leg-extension force (MF), BL isometric MF relative to body mass, and maximal rate of isometric force development than control participants. BL strength deficit was greater (p < .05) in PD patients than in controls. A significantly longer chair-rise time and lower maximal rate of vertical-ground-reaction-force development while rising from a chair was found in PD patients than in controls. These findings suggest that elderly women with PD have lowered voluntary isometric force-generation capacity of the leg-extensor muscles. Reduced BL leg-extension strength might contribute to the difficulty of individuals with PD to rise from a chair.

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Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin and Jennifer Weggen

more sitting and sedentary time further exacerbates this problem. 4 Prolonged sitting interventions have emerged as a useful tool to better understand the impact of sitting, a common sedentary activity, on the development of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis in the lower limbs. 5 , 6 Indeed

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Jaclyn Megan Sions, Elisa Sarah Arch and John Robert Horne

In the United States, the 1-year mortality rate following a major lower-limb amputation may be as high as 48%, whereas the 3-year mortality rate may be as high as 71%. 1 It is well established that adults with lower-limb amputations have reduced physical activity. 2 , 3 Physical inactivity and

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Elissa Burton, Karen Levit, Jim Codde, Keith D. Hill and Anne-Marie Hill

) and 6-min walk test ( Rikli & Jones, 1998 ); lower-limb strength using five times sit-to-stand test ( Jette et al., 1999 ); balance using the functional reach test ( Duncan, Studenski, Chandler, & Prescott, 1992 ; Duncan, Weiner, Chandler, & Studenski, 1990 ); timed tandem walk ( Guralnik et

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María Hernández, Fabrício Zambom-Ferraresi, Pilar Cebollero, Javier Hueto, José Antonio Cascante and María M. Antón

 al., 2011 ). However, it is not entirely clear whether muscle strength and muscle power are involved in the physical activity levels of older men with COPD. The peripheral muscle dysfunction of the lower limbs observed in older men with COPD is characterized by a reduction in the maximum muscle strength and