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Ioanna Athanasiadou, Sven Christian Voss, Wesal El Saftawy, Hind Al-Jaber, Najib Dbes, Sameera Al-Yazedi, Waseem Samsam, Vidya Mohamed-Ali, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Georgia Valsami and Costas Georgakopoulos

analysis, it was observed that, in many cases, urinary LH concentrations close to or below the threshold of 1.0 IU/L were related to low SG values (diluted samples, SG < 1.005). Based on anecdotal evidence, hyperhydration is being used by a number of athletes as a masking method, since urine dilution is

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Douglas M. Kleiner

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Erik E. Swartz

Column-editor : Michael G. Dolan

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John Strickland and Grant Bevill

review of biomechanics literature demonstrates that only the protective equipment available to batters and catchers have been evaluated, 5 – 9 whereas, to the authors’ knowledge, no tests have been performed for the facemasks available for fielders. Data from studies examining catcher’s masks are

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Jennifer L. Huberty, Jeni L. Matthews, Meynard Toledo, Lindsay Smith, Catherine L. Jarrett, Benjamin Duncan and Matthew P. Buman

measured twice using an electronic stadiometer and weighing scale (Seca 274, Medical Measuring Systems, Chino, CA). Lab personnel discussed what could be expected from the general protocol, and how to navigate certain parts of the yoga sequence while wearing the measurement tools (mask, backpack, and

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Blake D. McLean, Cloe Cummins, Greta Conlan, Grant Duthie and Aaron J. Coutts

% during straight line running), which could mask any small load increases in the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes that may occur during tackling drills. It has previously been shown that 3D accelerometer loads are strongly influenced by total distance traveled during locomotor activities (due to the

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Adam D. G. Baxter-Jones, Joey C. Eisenmann and Lauren B. Sherar

The process of maturation is continuous throughout childhood and adolescence. In a biological context, the effects of a child’s maturation might mask or be greater than the effects associated with exposure to exercise. Pediatric exercise scientists must therefore include an assessment of biological age in study designs so that the confounding effects of maturation can be controlled for. In order to understand how maturation can be assessed, it is important to appreciate that 1 year of chronological time is not equivalent to 1 year of biological time. Sex- and age-associated variations in the timing and tempo of biological maturation have long been recognized. This paper reviews some of the possible biological maturity indicators that the pediatric exercise scientist can use. As a result, we recommend that any of the methods discussed could be used for gender-specific comparisons. Gender-comparison studies should either use skeletal age or some form of somatic index.

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Bruce Kidd

“Americanization” is a much more useful term than “globalization” in the Canadian context. The specific practices of commercial sport that have eroded local autonomy began as explicitly American practices, and state-subsidized American-based cartels flood the Canadian market with American-focused spectacles, images, and souvenirs. But the term does oversimplify the complexity of social determinations and masks the increasing role the Canadian bourgeoisie plays in continentalist sports. “American capitalist hegemony” is therefore preferable. The long debate over Americanization in Canada has also focused on the appropriate public policy response. Traditionally, Canadians have turned to the state to protect cultural expression from the inroads of American production, but that becomes increasingly difficult under neoconservative renovation and the regional trading bloc created by the 1989 U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement. The popular movements will need new means to protect and strengthen the presentation and distribution of their own sporting culture.