“Americanization” is a much more useful term than “globalization” in the Canadian context. The specific practices of commercial sport that have eroded local autonomy began as explicitly American practices, and state-subsidized American-based cartels flood the Canadian market with American-focused spectacles, images, and souvenirs. But the term does oversimplify the complexity of social determinations and masks the increasing role the Canadian bourgeoisie plays in continentalist sports. “American capitalist hegemony” is therefore preferable. The long debate over Americanization in Canada has also focused on the appropriate public policy response. Traditionally, Canadians have turned to the state to protect cultural expression from the inroads of American production, but that becomes increasingly difficult under neoconservative renovation and the regional trading bloc created by the 1989 U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement. The popular movements will need new means to protect and strengthen the presentation and distribution of their own sporting culture.
Cheryl L. Cole
In this paper l consider how the contemporary national imagination is fabricated through racially coded deviance by interrogating what Nike calls its P.L.A.Y (Participate in the Lives of American Youth) campaign. P.L.A.Y., represented as a practical challenge to recent developments that deny “kids” access to sport and fitness activities, is part of a promotional network through which Nike seeks to secure a patriotic, charitable, and socially responsible public profile. In part, this profile and the complex terrain Nike occupies are territorialized through the somatic identity of Michael Jordan. I argue that representative figures like American Jordan are both effects and instruments of modern power. As such, Jordan is an element in and expression of a discursive formation that works to delimit and render intelligible what/who count as violent, criminal, and dangerous. The regulatory ideals invoked through a nation-centric discourse, American principles, Michael Jordan, and the apparent inverse relationship between urban sport and gangs work to bound and limit identities in ways that mask the complexities of the terrain occupied by transnational corporations like Nike, while exacerbating punitive and vengeful desires directed at Black urban youth.
.” According to Grano, the “problem” of forgetting is something that is inescapable in elite sport as the advance of human athletic potential masks realities such as racial inequality. Athletic bodies are regarded as “theological objects” in that they are considered eternal only in the moment they are created
Nikolaus A. Dean
diagnosis, I found myself in a constant battle of denial, depression, anxiety, and was forced to put on a “mask” during my interactions. As Goffman ( 1959 ) states, this “mask represents the conception we have formed of ourselves—the role we are striving to live up to—this mask is our truer self, the self
otherwise were afraid of not being “taken seriously” and respected as coaches: Sometimes, I feel like female coaches act more masculine inside of the boxing gym, than outside of the gym. It is as if they put on a mask – they change their way of interacting with us (boxers)… I think it might be because they
Tricia D. McGuire-Adams and Audrey R. Giles
a body to walk this earth’: The body pride experiences of young aboriginal men and women . Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise, and Health, 9 , 4 – 17 . doi:10.1080/2159676X.2016.1174727 10.1080/2159676X.2016.1174727 Coulthard , G. ( 2014 ). Red skin white masks: Rejecting the colonial
Derek M.D. Silva, Roy Bower and William Cipolli III
. The quantification of athletic ability makes commodification easy because it makes complex athletic ability digestible for the masses. But it also enables the easy identification of potentially minute differences between two athletes, and thus masks the paradox of subjective assessment of the ‘expert
Aquasia A. Shaw, Merry Moiseichik, Heather Blunt-Vinti and Sarah Stokowski
utilizing the full scale can range from 19 to 114. An average score for someone who is racially competent is >51.5 ( Campbell, 2014 ). CoBRAS Color-blind attitudes, as measured by the color-blind racial attitudes scale (CoBRAS), does not equate to racist attitudes. Rather, it measures a tendency to mask or
Hans Erik Næss
GSGBs, such as the awarding of Formula 1 Grand Prix’, even though that alone does not answer the second criticism, which is as follows. Focus on the constitution of power through relations may mask the use of force between parties regardless of relational configuration. Underestimating the accumulated
, which is evidenced by the continued existence of many of the same challenges and inequities for women’s cycling today. 30 Similarly, Carly Adams and Stacey Leavitt remind us that progress narratives associated with gains in participation and visibility often minimize and/or mask structural inequities