Measurement has a high profile in sport and exercise psychology research and provides the basis for examining and developing theory. The current state of sport and exercise psychology is one of complex models and theories, and sophisticated measurement methods are required to fully understand and develop these. This paper promotes a current and powerful measurement approach, item response theory, and demonstrates how it can be applied to sport and exercise psychological constructs to enhance the quality of instrument development and strengthen construct validity.
Michelle L. Granner and Patricia A. Sharpe
Promotion of physical activity is a public health priority, and environmental factors influence physical activity behavior. Valid and reliable automated measurement tools of physical activity for assessment and evaluation within public settings are needed.
Searches of the research literature and governmental reports from physical activity, transportation, and recreation fields were conducted to identify methods of automated counting and validation studies. The article provides a summary of (a) current methods and uses of automated counters, (b) information about validity and reliability where available, (c) strengths and limitations of each method, and (d) measurement issues.
Existing automated counting technology has strengths and limitations. Infrared sensors have been the most commonly used type of monitor and can mark date and time of passage, but are vulnerable to errors due to environmental conditions; cannot detect more than one person passing at a time; cannot identify mode of activity or distinguish among individuals; and lack consistent and adequate reliability for use in open spaces. Seismic devices and inductive loops may be useful for specific applications. More information is needed concerning the validity and reliability of infrared sensors, seismic devices, and inductive loops for confined areas. Computer imaging systems hold potential to address some of the limitations of other automated counters and for applications in both confined and open areas, but validation research is in the initial stages.
Although automated monitoring is a promising method for measurement of physical activity, more research is necessary to determine the acceptable parameters of performance for each type of automated monitor and for which applications each is best suited.
Maureen R. Weiss and Alan L. Smith
The role of peers has been neglected in research on youth psychosocial development in sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a measure of youth sport friendship quality for the purpose of facilitating such research. Dimensions and higher order themes found in Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom’s (1996) qualitative study of sport friendships among children and adolescents, as well as a core set of items from previous research (Parker & Asher, 1993), were used to develop and refine items for a sport friendship quality scale. Over the course of three studies, content, factorial, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency and test-retest reliability, were demonstrated for the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS). Future research is recommended to examine the role of children’s sport friendship quality on psychosocial development in the physical domain.
Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel
assessment and accurate measurement is not possible. Another frequently used evaluation method is with a hand-held dynamometer. However, some specialties of raters such as gender, body weight, and grip strength affect a rater’s reliability in obtaining torque measurements. 6 Isokinetic dynamometers are
Melissa M.B. Morrow, Bethany Lowndes, Emma Fortune, Kenton R. Kaufman and M. Susan Hallbeck
acquire highly accurate (within 1–3°) kinematic quantification. 6 While continued use of kinematic measurement within the laboratory is important and necessary, there is increased interest in the research and clinical practice communities to capture human motion outside of the laboratory setting. 8 – 10
Bareket Falk and Raffy Dotan
Measurement of Aerobic Power—Why is it Important? Maximal aerobic power ( V ˙ O 2 max ) is one of the 2 main constituents of aerobic capacity—the other one being aerobic endurance (percentage of V ˙ O 2 max that can be maintained for given distances or durations). Aerobic endurance is difficult
Samuel Ryan, Emidio Pacecca, Jye Tebble, Joel Hocking, Thomas Kempton and Aaron J. Coutts
should display measurement characteristics of validity (the ability of a test to measure what it is designed to measure), reliability (the consistency of results from a test), and sensitivity (the extent to which a test can detect changes beyond the typical error [TE] in results). 10 , 11 Reliability
Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, Tin-Lok Yuen, Jing Dong Liu and Donggen Wang
measurement invariance (MI) of the Chinese version of the Modified Social Environment Questionnaire (MSEQ-C) (i.e., how accurate the questionnaire items measure the construct). b. The convergent validity of the MSEQ-C. This was assessed by examining the relationship between the MSEQ-C and the Chinese version
Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow
social support, often derived from team members in a sport setting ( Inoue, Funk, Wann, Yoshida, & Nakazawa, 2015 ). Altogether, the factors contribute to overall well-being. In an effort to create a comprehensive measurement instrument encompassing all three dimensions of well-being, Keyes ( 2002
Joonkoo Yun and Dale A. Ulrich
The purposes of this tutorial are threefold: (a) to clarify the meaning of measurement validity, (b) to provide appropriate validation procedures for use by researchers in adapted physical activity, and (c) to raise the awareness of the limitations of the traditional views on measurement validity. Several validation procedures are described with specific examples from adapted physical activity research based on traditional approaches of providing validity evidence. Conceptual and empirical limitations of the traditional validity framework are discussed. We recommend that several categories of validity evidence should be reported in research studies. We encourage practicing the unified concept of measurement validity (Messick, 1993, 1995) in adapted physical activity research and practice.