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Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel

assessment and accurate measurement is not possible. Another frequently used evaluation method is with a hand-held dynamometer. However, some specialties of raters such as gender, body weight, and grip strength affect a rater’s reliability in obtaining torque measurements. 6 Isokinetic dynamometers are

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Melissa M.B. Morrow, Bethany Lowndes, Emma Fortune, Kenton R. Kaufman and M. Susan Hallbeck

acquire highly accurate (within 1–3°) kinematic quantification. 6 While continued use of kinematic measurement within the laboratory is important and necessary, there is increased interest in the research and clinical practice communities to capture human motion outside of the laboratory setting. 8 – 10

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Nicole C. George, Charles Kahelin, Timothy A. Burkhart and David M. Andrews

, tissue mass prediction equations for the upper 12 and lower 14 extremities have been developed from simple surface anthropometric measurements (lengths, circumferences, breadths, skinfolds) and validated against the actual tissue masses provided by DXA. These regression equations allow for the

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Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow

social support, often derived from team members in a sport setting ( Inoue, Funk, Wann, Yoshida, & Nakazawa, 2015 ). Altogether, the factors contribute to overall well-being. In an effort to create a comprehensive measurement instrument encompassing all three dimensions of well-being, Keyes ( 2002

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Joonkoo Yun and Dale A. Ulrich

The purposes of this tutorial are threefold: (a) to clarify the meaning of measurement validity, (b) to provide appropriate validation procedures for use by researchers in adapted physical activity, and (c) to raise the awareness of the limitations of the traditional views on measurement validity. Several validation procedures are described with specific examples from adapted physical activity research based on traditional approaches of providing validity evidence. Conceptual and empirical limitations of the traditional validity framework are discussed. We recommend that several categories of validity evidence should be reported in research studies. We encourage practicing the unified concept of measurement validity (Messick, 1993, 1995) in adapted physical activity research and practice.

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John Goetschius, Mark A. Feger, Jay Hertel and Joseph M. Hart

however, validity of the MatScan COP measurements and the ability of the device to detect changes in postural sway during a single leg stance has not been established. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the measurement of 4 COP excursion variables during single-leg static balance

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Edgar R. Vieira and Helenice J.C.G. Coury

Context:

Research and clinical recordings of lumbar flexion demand practicable and precise methodology for quantifying variations.

Objective:

To describe and evaluate the parallel reliability of 2 methods of measuring lumbar fexion—perpendicular stick markers (SM) and the distanciometer (DM)—using an electrogoniometer (EGM) as reference.

Design:

Parallel measurement for reliability.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

25 healthy men.

Intervention:

Simultaneous measure of lumbar flexion at preestablished positions (0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°).

Outcome Measures:

Data from SM and DM, recorded simultaneously.

Results:

High parallel reliability was found when comparing the EGM data with the SM (r = .997; measurement error: 0.6° ± 0.7°; no differences: t-test P = .260) and with the DM (r = .962; measurement error: 2.8° ± 1.9°; no differences: t-test P = .973).

Conclusions:

Considering the reliability, practicability, and low cost of the described methods, they can be regarded as applicable and useful.

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Craig R. Denegar and Donald W. Ball

The reliability and precision of measurement in sports medicine are of concern in both research and clinical practice. The validity of conclusions drawn from a research project and the rationale for decisions made about the care of an injured athlete are directly related to the precision of measurement. Through analysis of variance, estimates of reliability and precision of measurement can be quantified. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the concepts of intraclass correlation as an estimate of reliability and standard error of measurement as an estimate of precision. The need for a standardized set of formulas for intraclass correlation is demonstrated, and it is urged that the standard error of measurement be included when estimates of reliability are reported. In addition, three examples are provided to illustrate important concepts and familiarize the reader with the process of calculating these estimates of reliability and precision of measurement.

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José Pino-Ortega, Alejandro Hernández-Belmonte, Carlos D. Gómez-Carmona, Alejandro Bastida-Castillo, Javier García-Rubio and Sergio J. Ibáñez

movement alteration or postural adjustments. 14 Advances in technology have facilitated the development of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that is composed of different sensors (accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetometers, etc) in the same device. 15 Most sensors that make up these devices are capable of

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Matthew T. Crill, Christopher P. Kolba and Gary S. Chleboun

Context:

The lunge is commonly used to assess lower extremity strength, flexibility, and balance, yet few objective data exist on it.

Objectives:

To determine the reliability of the lunge test, determine whether there are gender differences associated with it, and study the relationships between lunge distance and height and leg length.

Design:

Single-factor repeated measures.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

57: 29 men, 28 women.

Main Outcome Measures:

Anterior lunge (AL) and lateral lunge (LL) distance, height, and leg length (cm).

Results:

LL distance (131.3 ± 12.3) is significantly greater than AL distance (113.7 ± 17.2) in men and in women (LL 113.6 ± 10.5, AL 96.6 ± 11.1). There was no significant correlation for height or leg length to any lunge measurement in men or women.

Conclusion:

The lunge can be used as a reliable test to measure lower extremity function. Right- and left-leg lunge distances should not differ, and LL will always be greater than AL.