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Richard Fletcher

Measurement has a high profile in sport and exercise psychology research and provides the basis for examining and developing theory. The current state of sport and exercise psychology is one of complex models and theories, and sophisticated measurement methods are required to fully understand and develop these. This paper promotes a current and powerful measurement approach, item response theory, and demonstrates how it can be applied to sport and exercise psychological constructs to enhance the quality of instrument development and strengthen construct validity.

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Michelle L. Granner and Patricia A. Sharpe

Background:

Promotion of physical activity is a public health priority, and environmental factors influence physical activity behavior. Valid and reliable automated measurement tools of physical activity for assessment and evaluation within public settings are needed.

Methods:

Searches of the research literature and governmental reports from physical activity, transportation, and recreation fields were conducted to identify methods of automated counting and validation studies. The article provides a summary of (a) current methods and uses of automated counters, (b) information about validity and reliability where available, (c) strengths and limitations of each method, and (d) measurement issues.

Results:

Existing automated counting technology has strengths and limitations. Infrared sensors have been the most commonly used type of monitor and can mark date and time of passage, but are vulnerable to errors due to environmental conditions; cannot detect more than one person passing at a time; cannot identify mode of activity or distinguish among individuals; and lack consistent and adequate reliability for use in open spaces. Seismic devices and inductive loops may be useful for specific applications. More information is needed concerning the validity and reliability of infrared sensors, seismic devices, and inductive loops for confined areas. Computer imaging systems hold potential to address some of the limitations of other automated counters and for applications in both confined and open areas, but validation research is in the initial stages.

Conclusions:

Although automated monitoring is a promising method for measurement of physical activity, more research is necessary to determine the acceptable parameters of performance for each type of automated monitor and for which applications each is best suited.

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Maureen R. Weiss and Alan L. Smith

The role of peers has been neglected in research on youth psychosocial development in sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a measure of youth sport friendship quality for the purpose of facilitating such research. Dimensions and higher order themes found in Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom’s (1996) qualitative study of sport friendships among children and adolescents, as well as a core set of items from previous research (Parker & Asher, 1993), were used to develop and refine items for a sport friendship quality scale. Over the course of three studies, content, factorial, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency and test-retest reliability, were demonstrated for the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS). Future research is recommended to examine the role of children’s sport friendship quality on psychosocial development in the physical domain.

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Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, Tin-Lok Yuen, Jing Dong Liu and Donggen Wang

measurement invariance (MI) of the Chinese version of the Modified Social Environment Questionnaire (MSEQ-C) (i.e., how accurate the questionnaire items measure the construct). b. The convergent validity of the MSEQ-C. This was assessed by examining the relationship between the MSEQ-C and the Chinese version

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Lisa Price, Katrina Wyatt, Jenny Lloyd, Charles Abraham, Siobhan Creanor, Sarah Dean and Melvyn Hillsdon

classes were asked to wear an accelerometer (n = 886). This study utilizes accelerometer data collected during baseline measurements only, which were collected in October 2012 (cohort 1) and October 2013 (cohort 2) for 2 phases of the program. Full details of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme trial are

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Deirdre Dlugonski, Katrina Drowatzky DuBose and Patrick Rider

analysis of shared physical activity. The overall purpose of this study was to present a new method for measurement of shared physical activity. The 2 specific goals were to describe shared patterns of physical activity between mothers and their young child (aged 1–5 y) and to examine the relationships

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Heontae Kim and Minsoo Kang

obesity. 11 Accurate measurement of sedentary behavior is important for (1) determining relationships between sedentary behavior and health outcomes, (2) planning effective interventions to reduce sedentary behavior, and (3) informing the public of health messages related to sedentary behavior. 12 As

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Weimo Zhu and Ang Chen

, & Lofus, 1997 ). In this paper we first focus on the development of the inventory, which included validation and cross-validation processes, applications, and contributions of the VOI. Then, we discuss in depth the VOI’s contributions and implications from the measurement perspective. Finally, we describe

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Michael J. LaMonte, I-Min Lee, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, John Bellettiere, Kelly R. Evenson, David M. Buchner, Chongzhi Di, Cora E. Lewis, Dori E. Rosenberg, Marcia L. Stefanick and Andrea Z. LaCroix

( Healy et al., 2011 ; Sallis & Saelens, 2000 ), particularly so in women, in older adults, and in race/ethnic minorities ( Masse et al., 1998 ; van Uffelen, Heesch, Hill, & Brown, 2011 ). There is increasing use of device measurements of PA and SB, which offer the potential for reducing exposure

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

) for increasing physical activity and managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and QoL consequences. The aforementioned research was prompted by an early scoping literature review on the topic of physical activity and its measurement, prevalence, correlates, and consequences in MS ( Motl, Snook