, & Lofus, 1997 ). In this paper we first focus on the development of the inventory, which included validation and cross-validation processes, applications, and contributions of the VOI. Then, we discuss in depth the VOI’s contributions and implications from the measurement perspective. Finally, we describe
Weimo Zhu and Ang Chen
Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert
) for increasing physical activity and managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and QoL consequences. The aforementioned research was prompted by an early scoping literature review on the topic of physical activity and its measurement, prevalence, correlates, and consequences in MS ( Motl, Snook
Matthew T. Mahar and David A. Rowe
A comprehensive review of the impact of measurement and evaluation in kinesiology is difficult to accomplish within the framework of a single research paper. Measurement touches nearly every research area in the field of kinesiology. In fact, for quantitative research it can be argued that without good measurement there can be no good research. Measurement researchers in kinesiology have impacted various areas, including criterion-referenced evaluation of test scores, development of fitness tests to measure body composition and aerobic fitness, health-related physical fitness, physical activity epidemiology, youth fitness testing, and many others. They have introduced innovative statistical techniques such as item response theory, which provides the underlying basis for modern standardized testing. Issues of test equating, differential item functioning, and the great impact of the expansion of computers and the Internet deserve special attention. Unfortunately, not all of the important contributions in the measurement field can be expanded upon in this manuscript. Instead, this paper will focus mainly on key measurement and evaluation influences on public health issues. In applied measurement research, two major themes have been the assessment of physical fitness and the assessment of physical activity. The last 40 years have been a time of defining the content area of measurement in kinesiology. Important measurement textbooks were published during this period (Baumgartner & Jackson, 1975; Morrow, Jackson, Disch, & Mood, 1995; Safrit, 1986). Since the 1970s the measurement field and the kinesiology field in general expanded from a focus on physical education to include all of the exercise and sport sciences. This paper will explore measurement and evaluation in kinesiology by (a) providing an overview of major milestones in measurement and evaluation over the last 40 years, (b) discussing current key areas of research and inquiry in measurement and evaluation, and (c) speculating about future research and inquiry in measurement and evaluation. The absence in this article of other important issues in measurement and evaluation in kinesiology does not imply anything about their importance.
Donald L. Greer and Michael G. Lacy
The purpose of this paper is to analyze and comment upon recent developments in the measurement and conceptualization of attitudes toward play, or “game orientation.” Recent scholarly work has become critical of the traditional measurement instrument, the Webb Scale, focusing primarily on the issues of situational ambiguity and unidimensional artificiality. These critiques are analyzed in comparison with the conceptual and measurement approach offered by an alternative instrument, the Game Orientation Scale. It is concluded that the case in favor of the GOS and its Likert format is not as strong as it first appears. Until further research is conducted, the two competing approaches should be treated as of comparable methodological quality. Substantive and methodological recommendations for future research are offered.
Timothy Jon Curry and Jeffrey S. Weaner
The social psychological concept of identity has been recognized as an important approach to the study of role-related behavior, including sports behavior. Identity has been linked theoretically to the self-concept via the notion of a salience hierarchy, and the salience of an identity in turn has been shown to be associated with time spent in role and other measures of role performance. In this article we present some measurement procedures for the study of the sport identity, and we demonstrate the utility of these procedures by testing hypotheses derived from Stryker and Serpe’s (1982) research on religious role behavior. The sample used to test these hypotheses is a purposive sample of 220 male college students and athletes.
Seong-Hee Park, Jae-Pil Ha and Daniel Mahony
While there is a relatively rich literature measuring curiosity outside of sport, there is little research on measuring sport fans’ curiosity. Based on Berlyne’s (1960) two dimensions of curiosity, the current research project aimed to develop a reliable and valid measurement scale for sport fans’ specific curiosity. Convenience samples of university students were used. Three studies were used to develop the 11-item Sport Fan Specific Curiosity Scale (SFSCS) was developed. Specifically, the SFSCS consisted of three factors: specific information (5 items), general information (3 items), and sport facility information (3 items). The SFSCS was found to be a reliable and valid scale to measure sport fans’ specific curiosity. The scale should be useful in predicting aspects of sport fan behavior for sport fans at various stages.
Masayuki Yoshida, Brian Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa and Rui Biscaia
In the sport management literature, limited attention has been devoted to the conceptualization and measurement of fan engagement. Two quantitative studies were completed to validate the proposed fan-engagement scale composed of three defining elements (management cooperation, prosocial behavior, and performance tolerance). The results from Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the threefactor model of fan engagement. In Study 2, we assess nomological validity by examining the antecedents and consequences of fan engagement and found that team identification and basking in reflected glory played a particularly important role in increasing the three dimensions of fan engagement. Furthermore, the results indicate that performance tolerance has a positive effect on purchase intention. These findings highlight the importance of the sequential relationships between team identification, performance tolerance, and purchase intention.
Passion drives sport consumption, but we lack valid relevant measures of passion. The results of two studies provide evidence of a reliable and valid multiple-item passion scale that may be used in the study of sports-related consumption behavior. In Study 1 a multi-item fan passion scale was compared with established social identification fan classification scales to provide evidence of discriminant and predictive validity. Because the passion scale outperformed other relevant fan classification measures, in Study 2 the fan passion scale was compared with current single-item measurement practices employed by National Football League and Major League Baseball teams, and some academics, to classify fans. Findings confirmed the veracity of the multi-item passion measure over categorical and interval fan avidity measures used by leagues and syndicated research providers. Taken together, the studies validate an accurate measure of fan passion that may be used to segment and predict fan behaviors, including consumption of traditional media (television, radio, news, and the team’s website) and consumption of the team’s official social media outlets.
Kirk L. Wakefield, Jeffrey G. Blodgett and Hugh J. Sloan
The physical environment of the stadium may have a significant effect on the extent to which spectators will desire to stay and return to the stadium. Specific aspects of the stadium experience may lead directly to spectators' pleasure with the place, while other factors may contribute to negative feelings that may decrease pleasure. This study provides sports facility managers with a reliable survey instrument to determine how spectators perceive their facility. Recommendations are provided to guide stadium owners and managers in the effective management of the facility to maximize spectator satisfaction.
Seong Hee Park, Daniel F. Mahony and T. Christopher Greenwell
Curiosity has been regarded as a key intrinsic motivational drive for facilitating human exploratory behaviors in many domains, such as psychology, education, and sport. However, no attempt has been made to measure curiosity in a sport context. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective and efficient sport fan exploratory curiosity scale (SFECS). A total of 657 participants were recruited and completed surveys. Various statistical analyses were used to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. The analyses resulted in a reliable and valid scale with three factors (Excitement, New Sport Events, Sport Facility) and a total of 10-items. The SFECS was useful in predicting various sport fan behaviors. Future research should be done in an effort to further refine the scale and to examine the role of curiosity in various practical areas in a sport context.