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Anthony D. Mahon, Megan E. Woodruff, Mary P. Horn, Andrea D. Marjerrison and Andrew S. Cole

The effect of stimulant medication use by children with attention deficit/hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)—heart rate (HR) relationship was examined. Children with ADHD (n = 20; 11.3 ± 1.8 yrs) and children without ADHD (n = 25; 11.2 ± 2.1 yrs) were studied. Children with ADHD were examined while on their usual dose of medication on the day of study. HR and RPE, using the OMNI RPE scale, were assessed during a graded exercise to peak voluntary effort. The RPE-HR relationship was determined individually and the intercept and slope responses were compared between groups. The intercept was 132.4 ± 19.5 bpm for children with ADHD and 120.6 ± 15.7 bpm for children without ADHD. The slope was 7.3 ± 1.9 bpm/RPE for the children with ADHD and 8.1 ± 1.6 bpm/RPE for the children without ADHD. For the group with ADHD the intercept and slope values fell outside of the 95% CI observed in the control group. The altered relationship between RPE and HR with stimulant medication use in children with ADHD has practical implications with respect to the use of HR and RPE to monitor exercise intensity.

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Sameep D. Maniar, Lewis A. Curry, John Sommers-Flanagan and James A. Walsh

This study’s purpose was to evaluate athlete willingness to seek help from various sport-titled and non sport-titled individuals when confronted with three common sport performance problem scenarios: midseason slump, return from serious injury, and desire to perform more optimally. Athlete intervention preferences were also assessed. Data were collected on a stratified (by gender) random sample of 60 NCAA Division I athletes. Using an observable one-point difference on a nine-point Likert-type scale and a corresponding moderate to large main effect (Cohen’s d < .40), results indicated that for all scenarios, athletes preferred seeking help from a coach over sport-titled professionals, whereas sport-titled professionals were preferred over counselors and clinical psychologists. Goal setting and imagery were the preferred interventions. Hypnosis and medication were less preferred. The discussion focuses on sport-related professional titles and athlete education to enhance service acceptability.

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Claudia Verret, Phillip Gardiner and Louise Béliveau

The purpose of this study was to assess fitness and gross motor performance of children with ADHD, including users and nonusers of methylphenidate medication. Seventy boys took part in the study. Fitness level of children with ADHD using medication or not, including body composition, flexibility, and muscular endurance, was similar to that of a control group. The only difference was observed for body mass index, which was lower in children with ADHD using medication. Aerobic capacity was also similar when measured by a treadmill test. A lower performance was observed when aerobic capacity was estimated using a field shuttle test, however, suggesting that the methodology used is important. Finally, both groups of children with ADHD presented significantly lower scores for locomotion skills.

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Daniel Jolley, Brian Dawson, Shane K. Maloney, James White, Carmel Goodman and Peter Peeling

This study investigated the influence of dehydration on urinary levels of pseudoephedrine (PSE) after prolonged repeated effort activity. Fourteen athletes performed a simulated team game circuit (STGC) outdoors over 120 min under three different hydration protocols: hydrated (HYD), dehydrated (DHY) and dehydrated + postexercise fluid bolus (BOL). In all trials, a 60 mg dose of PSE was administered 30 min before trial and at half time of the STGC. Urinary PSE levels were measured before drug administration and at 90 min postexercise. In addition, body mass (BM) changes and urinary specific gravity (USG), osmolality (OSM), creatinine (Cr), and pH values were recorded. No differences in PSE levels were found 90 min postexercise between conditions (HYD: 208.5 ± 116.5; DHY: 238.9 ± 93.5; BOL: 195.6 ± 107.3 μg·ml−1), although large variations were seen within and between participants across conditions (range: 33–475 μg·ml−1: ICC r = .03–0.16, p > .05). There were no differences between conditions in USG, OSM, pH or PSE/Cr ratio. In conclusion, hydration status did not influence urinary PSE levels after prolonged repeated effort activity, with ~70% of samples greater than the WADA limit (>150 μ−1), and ~30% under. Due to the unpredictability of urinary PSE values, athletes should avoid taking any medications containing PSE during competition.

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Jim Taylor and Shel Taylor

This article addresses the essential role that pain plays in the rehabilitation of sports injury. It will describe important information and approaches that applied sport psychologists can use to more effectively manage pain in injured athletes. The article includes a brief discussion of the most accepted theories of pain. Types of pain that injured athletes may experience and how they can learn to discriminate between them will be discussed. The article will also consider how pain can be a useful tool as information about injured athletes’ current status in recovery and the need to modify their rehabilitation regimens. The value of measuring pain will be examined with emphasis on determining a simple and easy means of assessing pain. Next, the article will examine why nonpharmacological pain management may be a useful adjunct to pharmacological pain control. Then, a brief description of the most commonly used pain medications and a detailed description of common nonpharmacological pain-management strategies will be furnished. A discussion of how nonpharmacological pain management can be incorporated into the traditional rehabilitation process will be offered. Finally, the article will describe the role that sport psychologists can play in the management of sport injury-related pain. The objective of this article is to provide applied practitioners with the knowledge and tools necessary to assist injured athletes in mitigating the pain they will experience during recovery as a means of facilitating their rehabilitation and return to sport.

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Scott J. Pedersen, Paul R. Surburg, Matthew Heath and David M. Koceja

The purpose was to investigate central and peripheral processing mechanisms through the use of electromyography (EMG) to determine differences between the performance of children with and without ADHD on a lower extremity choice response time task. Sixteen children with ADHD were tested on and off medication along with 19 children without ADHD. For premotor time, the comparison group performed significantly faster than children with ADHD. The longer latencies exhibited in central processing of children with ADHD were related to midline crossing inhibition (MCI). Medication improved the speed of processing for children with ADHD, but did not negate MCI.

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Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson

strategies, such as arranging sleep–wake and meal times according to the target time, should be preferred over medication. 30 The use of sleep medication will be further discussed in the subsequent section. Nocturnal Dreaming Dreaming—or better sleep mentation—defined as all mental experiences (perceptions

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

adequate in energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients; (b) is not at risk for health issues, including interactions with prescription or over-the-counter medications ( Deal & VanReken, 2017 ); and (c) would benefit from dietary supplements and is knowledgeable about the appropriate supplementation

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Amanda Zaleski, Beth Taylor, Braden Armstrong, Michael Puglisi, Priscilla Clarkson, Stuart Chipkin, Charles Michael White, Paul D. Thompson and Linda S. Pescatello

antihypertensive medications were included if their BP was controlled and on the same medication for at least 3 months. Height, weight, waist circumference, and a fasting blood draw were obtained to assess serum 25(OH)D levels. Height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI; in kilogram per meter

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Claudio Perret, Debbie Van Biesen, Matthias Strupler, Pia Pit-Grosheide and Yves Vanlandewijck

effectively enhances exercise performance at low or moderate altitudes—corresponding to locations where Paralympic competitions normally take place, some athletes seem to take this medication to potentially improve exercise performance. This fact initiated an increased interest of the anti-doping community in