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Amy L. Nikolai, Brittany A. Novotny, Cortney L. Bohnen, Kathryn M. Schleis and Lance C. Dalleck


The purposes of this study were (1) to assess the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to water aerobic exercise and (2) to determine if water aerobics exercise meets the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for improving and maintaining car-diorespiratory fitness.


Fourteen men and women—mean ± SD age 57.4 ± 7.6 y, height 171.3 ± 7.8 cm, weight 89.9 ± 13.9 kg, body-fat percentage 32.5% ± 5.8%, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 31.0 ± 8.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1—completed a maximal treadmill exercise test and a 50-min water aerobics session. Cardiovascular and metabolic data were collected via a portable calorimetric measurement system.


Mean exercise intensity was 43.4% of heart-rate reserve and 42.2% of maximal oxygen uptake reserve. Training intensity in metabolic equivalents was 4.26 ± 0.96. Total net energy expenditure for the exercise session was 249.1 ± 94.5 kcal/session.


Results indicate that water aerobics is a feasible alternative to land-based exercise for middle-aged and older adults that fulfills the ACSM guidelines for improving and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Blanche Evans, David Hopkins and Tracey Toney

The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic stress of a self-paced half-mile walk test incorporated in the AAHPERD functional fitness assessment for older adults. Forty-three subjects, aged 57 to 75, completed a half-mile walk on an indoor track (IT) and during a treadmill simulation (TS) of the track walk. Treadmill data indicated that subjects exercised at a mean VO2 of 14.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1 and mean heart rate (b · min−1) of 129. A significant difference (p ≤ .05) was found between IT and TS on rating of perceived exertion. Results indicate that older subjects selected a pace that stressed their cardiorespiratory system without producing severe fatigue or medical complications. Therefore, the half-mile walk test appears to be a safe test that may be incorporated in functional fitness testing. However, its ability to determine functional capacity needs further study.

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Kelly S. Chu, Edward C. Rhodes, Jack E. Taunton and Alan D. Martin

The purpose of this study was to assess the difference in maximal physiological responses between an acute bout of deep-water running (DWR) and treadmill running (TMR) in young and older adults. Participants were 9 young and 9 older women who performed maximal DWR and TMR tests. Maximal measures included oxygen consumption (VO2max), heart rate (HRmax), ventilation (VE), respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BLac). The young women exhibited higher VO2max, HRmax, VE, and BLac than did the older women for both exercise conditions (p < .05). Lower VO2max and HRmax values were observed with DWR for both age groups (p < .05). No significant differences were found for VE, RER, and BLac in either group between exercise conditions, nor a significant interaction between exercise conditions or ages for any of the variables measured. The data suggest that although older adults exhibit lower maximal metabolic responses, differences between DWR and TMR responses occur irrespective of age.

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Bethany Forseth and Stacy D. Hunter

performed. 14 – 16 Previous research on the intensity of yoga has encompassed studies that measure heart rate and metabolic responses to individual postures and/or short yoga sequences. 14 , 17 – 19 The values from individual poses or portions of the class are commonly extrapolated and then used to

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Julio Cezar Q. Machado, Caroline M.O. Volpe, Leonardo S. Vasconcellos and José A. Nogueira-Machado

-associated lipocalin; uNGAL, urine NGAL. Discussion Our present results demonstrate that uNGAL is increased in those athletes who practice endurance cycling, suggesting that there is a metabolic response that is induced by exercise that affects the kidney. The urine NGAL levels that were evaluated 48 hours after

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Julia Rudecki, Katie Weatherson and Guy Faulkner

mortality. 3, 4 However, observational and experimental studies have indicated that interrupting prolonged sedentary time is associated with anti-inflammatory markers and favorable metabolic responses. 5, 6 To reduce SB, it is vital to create an environment that discourages extended bouts of sitting and

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Sheri J. Hartman, Catherine R. Marinac, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Jacqueline Kerr, Loki Natarajan, Suneeta Godbole, Ruth E. Patterson, Brittany Morey and Dorothy D. Sears

, Bodicoat DH , et al . Breaking up prolonged sitting with standing or walking attenuates the postprandial metabolic response in postmenopausal women: a randomized acute study . Diabetes Care. 2016 ; 39 ( 1 ): 130 – 138 . PubMed doi:10.2337/dc15-1240 26628415 10.2337/dc15-1240 24. Thorp AA

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Whitney A. Welch, Scott J. Strath, Michael Brondino, Renee Walker and Ann M. Swartz

would elicit the same metabolic response that had previously been seen with walking. 9 , 10 Since we did see a duration–response effect using multiple modes, this indicates we could promote greater varieties of physical activity other than walking, cycling, or other more exercise-related activities. In

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Meredith C. Peddie, Matthew Reeves, Millie K. Keown, Tracy L. Perry and C. Murray Skeaff

, C.L. , Gill , J.M.R. , Stensel , D.J. , … Yates , T. ( 2015 ). Breaking up prolonged sitting with standing or walking attenuates the postprandial metabolic response in postmenopausal women: a randomized acute study . Diabetes Care, 39 , 130 – 138 . PubMed ID: 26628415 doi:10.2337/dc15

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J. Luke Pryor, Brittany Christensen, Catherine G. R. Jackson and Stephanie Moore-Reed

group means. RPE and absolute V ˙ O 2 data were nonparametric (Shapiro–Wilk, P  < .03). Separate 1-way analysis of variances with Tukey’s post hoc tests evaluated normally distributed cardiovascular and metabolic responses among the LSUN, MSUN, HSUN, and TM. Nonparametric data (RPE and absolute V