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Mara Simon and Laura Azzarito

Ethnic minority female physical education (PE) teachers who work in predominantly White schools may face multiple, intersecting forms of oppression due to inherent underlying notions of whiteness, which position the embodiment of a racialized identity as “other” ( Burden, Harrison, & Hodge, 2005

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Zachary McCarver, Shelby Anderson, Justine Vosloo and Sebastian Harenberg

held 39.8% of Division I head coaching jobs of women’s teams and 4.7% of coaching jobs of men’s teams. It is unclear, however, if the profession of SEP suffers from a similar underrepresentation of minorities. Discrimination is more likely to occur in workplaces lacking diversity (Equal Employment

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Daniel Gould, Larry Lauer, Cristina Rolo, Caroline Jannes and Nori Pennisi

This study was designed to investigate experienced coaches’ perceptions of the parent’s role in junior tennis and identify positive and negative parental behaviors and attitudes. Six focus groups were conducted with 24 coaches. Content analysis of coaches’ responses revealed that most parents were positive influences and espoused an appropriate perspective of tennis, emphasized child development, and were supportive. In contrast, a minority of parents were perceived as negative, demanding and overbearing, and exhibiting an outcome orientation. New findings included parents’ setting limits on tennis and emphasizing a child’s total development, as well as the identification of behaviors that represent parental overinvolvement and that negatively affect coaching. Results are discussed relative to sport-parenting literature, and practical implications are outlined.

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Hans Braun, Karsten Koehler, Hans Geyer, Jens Kleinert, Joachim Mester and Wilhelm Schänzer

Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 ± 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids. Furthermore, information about motives, sources of advice, supplement sources, and supplement contamination was assessed. Eighty percent of all athletes reported using at least 1 supplement, and the prevalence of use was significantly higher in older athletes (p < .05). Among supplement users, minerals, vitamins, sport drinks, energy drinks, and carbohydrates were most frequently consumed. Only a minority of the athletes declared that they used protein/amino acids, creatine, or other ergogenic aids. Major motives for supplement use were health related, whereas performance enhancement and recommendations by others were less frequently reported. Supplements were mainly obtained from parents or by athletes themselves and were mostly purchased in pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Among all athletes, only 36% were aware of the problem of supplement contamination. The survey shows that supplement use is common and widespread among German elite young athletes. This stands in strong contrast to recommendations by leading sport organizations against supplement use by underage athletes.

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Sergio J. Ibáñez, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez and Sebastián Feu

The purpose of this study was to analyze scientific production on the topic of sport coaches in Spain, using doctoral theses included in the Spanish Ordered Theses TESEO database. Productivity was analyzed based on 17 variables grouped into contextual information, object of study, classification criteria, research design and research procedure. Sixty indexed theses were studied from the time period of 1996 to 2017, showing a progressive growth of scientific production in theses during this time. The role of women in the direction and writing of theses still represents a minority. The majority of theses are classified in the scientific disciplines of Sport Pedagogy and Exercise Psychology. The results show that quantitative methodological approaches predominate with descriptive research on populations using surveys or systematic observation. The most commonly used type of sampling was intentional with a questionnaire to collect data. The results show the profile of this research topic, the methodological approach, and the research tendencies as well as underlining the basic lines for development.

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Alan J. McCubbin, Gregory R. Cox and Ricardo J.S. Costa

There is little information describing how endurance athletes perceive sodium intake in relation to training and competition. Using an online questionnaire, this study assessed the beliefs, information sources, and intended practices regarding sodium ingestion for training and competition. Endurance athletes (n = 344) from six English-speaking countries completed the questionnaire and were included for analysis. The most cited information sources were social supports (63%), self-experimentation (56%), and media (48%). Respondents generally believed (>50% on electronic visual analog scale) endurance athletes require additional sodium on a daily basis (median 67% [interquartile range: 40–81%]), benefit from increased sodium in the days preceding competition (60% [30–77%]), should replace sodium losses during training (69% [48–83%]) and competition (74% [54–87%]), and would benefit from sweat composition testing (82% [65–95%]). Respondents generally believed sodium ingestion during endurance exercise prevents exercise-associated muscle cramps (75% [60–88%]) and exercise-associated hyponatremia (74% [62–89%]). The majority (58%) planned to consciously increase sodium or total food intake (i.e., indirectly increasing sodium intake) in the days preceding competition. Most (79%) were conscious of sodium intake during competition, but only 29% could articulate a specific intake plan. A small minority (5%) reported using commercial sweat testing services, of which 75% believed it was beneficial. We conclude that endurance athletes commonly perceive sodium intake as important for their sporting activities. Many intend to consciously increase sodium intake in the days preceding and during competition, although these views appear informed mostly by nonscientific and/or non-evidence-based sources.

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INTERNATIONAL SPORT COACHING JOURNAL

DIGEST VOLUME 5, Issue #3

of Elite Level Minority Coaches in Professional Football in England, France and the Netherlands Bradbury, S., van Sterkenburg, J., & Mignon, P. (2018). International Review for the Sociology of Sport , 53 (3), 313–334. doi: 10.1177/1012690216656807 This article examines the previously under

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-0190 Development and Validation of a Scale Assessing Test Anxiety in Physical Education Sarah Danthony * Nicolas Mascret * François Cury * 1 10 2019 38 4 357 366 10.1123/jtpe.2018-0282 jtpe.2018-0282 “Putting Blinders on”: Ethnic Minority Female PE Teachers’ Identity Struggles Negotiating Racialized

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Risto Marttinen, Mara Simon, Sharon Phillips and Ray N. Fredrick III

space and safe places to play ( Parks, Housemann, & Brownson, 2004 ). Research has documented the problem of perceived safe access to recreational facilities, specifically among poor urban minority youth, as a concern and a barrier to PA engagement ( Moore, Roux, Evenson, McGinn, & Brines, 2008 ; Trilk

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Blake Bennett

procedures followed so that the approach may be critiqued and developed further in other sporting contexts. It is hoped that a review of the tools, procedures, and findings is found valuable for those operating in high-performance climates, perhaps within minority sport structures, where athletes and coaches