Recent work has espoused the idea that in applied sporting environments, “fast”-working practitioners should work together with “slow”-working researchers. However, due to economical and logistical constraints, such a coupling may not always be practical. Therefore, alternative means of combining research and applied practice are needed. A particular methodology that has been used in recent years is qualitative research. Examples of qualitative methods include online surveys, 1-on-1 interviews, and focus groups. This article discusses the merits of using qualitative methods to combine applied practice and research in sport science. This includes a discussion of recent examples of the use of such methods in published journal articles, a critique of the approaches employed, and future directions and recommendations. The authors encourage both practitioners and researchers to use and engage with qualitative research with the ultimate goal of benefiting athlete health and sporting performance.
Liam D. Harper and Robert McCunn
Emily Bremer and Meghann Lloyd
The purpose of this pilot study was to demonstrate the impact of a fundamentalmotor-skill (FMS) intervention on the motor skills of 3- to 7-year-old children with autism-like characteristics in an early intervention classroom. A secondary purpose was to qualitatively assess the impact of the program as described by the classroom’s special education teacher. All children in the classroom (N = 5) took part in an FMS intervention for two 6-wk blocks (fall 2013 and winter 2014). Motor-skill proficiency and social skills were assessed at 3 times: baseline, after Block 1 of the intervention, and after Block 2 of the intervention. In addition, an interview was conducted with the classroom teacher after Assessment 3 to draw further insights into the relative success and impact of the program. Results were analyzed through a visual analysis and presented individually. They indicated improvements in the participants’ individual FMS and social-skill scores, possible improvements in declarative knowledge, and an increase in the special education teacher’s readiness to teach FMS; further research with larger, controlled samples is warranted.
Shilo J. Dormehl, Samuel J. Robertson, Alan R. Barker and Craig A. Williams
To evaluate the efficacy of existing performance models to assess the progression of male and female adolescent swimmers through a quantitative and qualitative mixed-methods approach.
Fourteen published models were tested using retrospective data from an independent sample of Dutch junior national-level swimmers from when they were 12–18 y of age (n = 13). The degree of association by Pearson correlations was compared between the calculated differences from the models and quadratic functions derived from the Dutch junior national qualifying times. Swimmers were grouped based on their differences from the models and compared with their swimming histories that were extracted from questionnaires and follow-up interviews.
Correlations of the deviations from both the models and quadratic functions derived from the Dutch qualifying times were all significant except for the 100-m breaststroke and butterfly and the 200-m freestyle for females (P < .05). In addition, the 100-m freestyle and backstroke for males and 200-m freestyle for males and females were almost directly proportional. In general, deviations from the models were accounted for by the swimmers’ training histories. Higher levels of retrospective motivation appeared to be synonymous with higher-level career performance.
This mixed-methods approach helped confirm the validity of the models that were found to be applicable to adolescent swimmers at all levels, allowing coaches to track performance and set goals. The value of the models in being able to account for the expected performance gains during adolescence enables quantification of peripheral factors that could affect performance.
Rob Duffield, Alistair Murphy, Aaron Kellett and Machar Reid
To investigate the effects of combining cold-water immersion (CWI), full-body compression garments (CG), and sleep-hygiene recommendations on physical, physiological, and perceptual recovery after 2-a-day on-court training and match-play sessions.
In a crossover design, 8 highly trained tennis players completed 2 sessions of on-court tennis-drill training and match play, followed by a recovery or control condition. Recovery interventions included a mixture of 15 min CWI, 3 h of wearing full-body CG, and following sleep-hygiene recommendations that night, while the control condition involved postsession stretching and no regulation of sleeping patterns. Technical performance (stroke and error rates), physical performance (accelerometry, countermovement jump [CMJ]), physiological (heart rate, blood lactate), and perceptual (mood, exertion, and soreness) measures were recorded from each on-court session, along with sleep quantity each night.
While stroke and error rates did not differ in the drill session (P > .05, d < 0.20), large effects were evident for increased time in play and stroke rate in match play after the recovery interventions (P > .05, d > 0.90). Although accelerometry values did not differ between conditions (P > .05, d < 0.20), CMJ tended to be improved before match play with recovery (P > .05, d = 0.90). Furthermore, CWI and CG resulted in faster postsession reductions in heart rate and lactate and reduced perceived soreness (P > .05, d > 1.00). In addition, sleep-hygiene recommendations increased sleep quantity (P > .05, d > 2.00) and maintained lower perceived soreness and fatigue (P < .05, d > 2.00).
Mixed-method recovery interventions (CWI and CG) used after tennis sessions increased ensuing time in play and lower-body power and reduced perceived soreness. Furthermore, sleep-hygiene recommendations helped reduce perceived soreness.
Lee Taylor, Christopher J. Stevens, Heidi R. Thornton, Nick Poulos and Bryna C.R. Chrismas
JWF , Chrismas BCR , Akubat I , Stringer CA , Abt G , Taylor L . Mixed-methods pre-match cooling improves simulated soccer performance in the heat . Eur J Sport Sci . 2019 ; 19 ( 2 ): 156 – 165 . 30041568 10.1080/17461391.2018.1498542 14. Patterson SM , Udermann BE , Doberstein
Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien
. PubMed ID: 11548917 doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(01)80028-1 11548917 10.1016/S1440-2440(01)80028-1 17. Minett GM , Duffield R , Kellett A , Portus M . Effects of mixed-method cooling on recovery of medium-fast bowling performance in hot conditions on consecutive days . J Sport Sci . 2012 ; 30
Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien
Sport . 2012 ; 15 : 182 – 188 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2011.07.006 21907618 10.1016/j.jsams.2011.07.006 4. Minett GM , Duffield R , Kellett A , Portus M . Effects of mixed-method cooling on recovery of medium-fast bowling performance in hot conditions on consecutive days . J Sports Sci
Emma C. Neupert, Stewart T. Cotterill and Simon A. Jobson
a group of elite athletes who use a TMS and, using an interdisciplinary and mixed-methods approach, utilize this information to inform intervention strategies to support TMS buy-in. Methods Participants Recruited through convenience sampling, 9 national team female sprint water-sport athletes agreed
Andressa Silva, Fernanda V. Narciso, Igor Soalheiro, Fernanda Viegas, Luísa S.N. Freitas, Adriano Lima, Bruno A. Leite, Haroldo C. Aleixo, Rob Duffield and Marco T. de Mello
.0000000000000418 29135639 15. Nédélec M , Leduc C , Dawson B , Guilhem G , Dupont G . Case study: sleep and injury in elite soccer—a mixed method approach . J Strength Cond Res . 2019 ; 33 ( 11 ): 3085 – 3091 . PubMed ID: 28930876 doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002251 28930876 16. Sargent C
Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Konstantinos Michaloglou, Alexandra Avloniti, Diamanda Leontsini, Chariklia K. Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sotirios Arsenis, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Craig A. Williams and Ioannis G. Fatouros
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