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Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Caroline S. Blaum, Tisha Moore, Roger Brown, Andrzej Galecki, Debra Strasburg, Shu Chen and Neil B. Alexander

of acute and long-term health care resources. 2 In addition, loss of muscle mass, impaired balance, and decline in muscle strength and endurance are attributed to the aging process. 3 Comorbidities influence mobility limitations, particularly cardiovascular disease and obesity. 4 Nevertheless

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Johanna Eronen, Mikaela von Bonsdorff, Merja Rantakokko, Erja Portegijs, Anne Viljanen and Taina Rantanen

Life-space mobility describes the extent of community mobility of older persons. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and life-space mobility and to investigate whether associations might be explained by SES-related disparities in health and functioning. The participants (n = 848) were community-dwelling adults aged 75–90. Education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Life-space assessment (range 0–120) was used to indicate distance and frequency of moving and assistance needed in moving. People with low education had lower life-space mobility scores than those with intermediate or high education: marginal means 63.5, 64.8, and 70.0 (p = .003), respectively. SES-related health disparities, i.e., higher body mass index, poorer cognitive capacity, and poorer physical performance explained the association, rendering it nonsignificant (marginal means 65.2, 65.3, and 67.5, p = .390). Low SES and restricted life-space mobility often coexist with overweight, reduced cognition, and poorer physical performance.

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Bonnie Field, Tom Cochrane, Rachel Davey and Yohannes Kinfu

The aim of this study was to identify determinants of walking and whether walking maintained mobility among women as they transition from their mid-70s to their late 80s. We used 12 years of follow-up data (baseline 1999) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (n = 10,322). Fifteen determinants of walking were included in the analysis and three indicators of mobility. Longitudinal data analyses techniques were employed. Thirteen of the 15 determinants were significant predictors of walking. Women in their mid-70s who walked up to 1 hr per week were less likely to experience loss of mobility in very old age, including reduced likelihood of using a mobility aid. Hence, older women who do no walking should be encouraged to walk to maintain their mobility and their independence as they age, particularly women in their 70s and 80s who smoke, are overweight, have arthritis, or who have had a recent fall.

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Alyson B. Harding, Nancy W. Glynn, Stephanie A. Studenski, Philippa J. Clarke, Ayushi A. Divecha and Andrea L. Rosso

While mobility is key to functional independence in aging, the influence of the local environment has only recently been included in human aging research ( Cunningham & Michael, 2004 ). In older adults, the capacity to move through the environment (mobility) affects functional independence and

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Yijian Yang, Kimberley S. van Schooten, Heather A. McKay, Joanie Sims-Gould, Raymond A. Hoang and Stephen N. Robinovitch

and cognitive impairments ( Luppa et al., 2009 ; Rockwood, Abeysundera, & Mitnitski, 2007 ), that limit their ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). Limited ADL may lead to mobility disability (e.g., impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions Balboa

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Lotta Palmberg, Erja Portegijs, Taina Rantanen, Eeva Aartolahti, Anne Viljanen, Mirja Hirvensalo and Merja Rantakokko

symptoms ( Rantakokko et al., 2010 ), and accumulation of risk factors including lower socioeconomic status, poorer health and mobility limitations increase the risk for the development of unmet PA need ( Eronen, von Bonsdorff, Rantakokko, & Rantanen, 2012 ). An earlier study showed that older people

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Mohammed M. Althomali and Susan J. Leat

Balance or postural control is a complex motor mechanism receiving input from various systems in the body. Balance is the ability to maintain position, undertake activities and retain good mobility (the ability to move safely and efficiently within the environment without falling). The three main

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Odessa Addison, Monica C. Serra, Leslie Katzel, Jamie Giffuni, Cathy C. Lee, Steven Castle, Willy M. Valencia, Teresa Kopp, Heather Cammarata, Michelle McDonald, Kris A. Oursler, Chani Jain, Janet Prvu Bettger, Megan Pearson, Kenneth M. Manning, Orna Intrator, Peter Veazie, Richard Sloane, Jiejin Li and Miriam C. Morey

stroke ( Rillamas-Sun et al., 2014 ; van den Bussche et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, obesity is a leading cause of mobility limitations in older adults ( Samper-Ternent & Al Snih, 2012 ; Villareal et al., 2005 ; Villareal, Banks, Siener, Sinacore, & Klein, 2004 ). Obese older adults experience

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Aftab E. Patla and Anne Shumway-Cook

Mobility, the ability to move independently, is critical to maintaining independence and quality of life. Among older adults, mobility disability results when an individual cannot meet the demands of the environment. Current approaches to defining mobility rely on distance and time measures, or decompose mobility into subtasks (e.g., climbing, sit to stand), but provide limited understanding of mobility in the elderly. In this paper, a new conceptual framework identifies the critical environmental factors, or dimensions, that operationally define mobility within a given community, such as ambient conditions (light levels, weather conditions) and terrain characteristics (stairs, curbs). Our premise is that the environment and the individual conjointly determine mobility disability. Mobility in the elderly is defined not by the number of tasks a person can or cannot perform, but by the range of environmental contexts in which tasks can be safely carried out: the more disabled, the more restrictive the dimensions.

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Ashley A. Herda, Brianna D. McKay, Trent J. Herda, Pablo B. Costa, Jeffrey R. Stout and Joel T. Cramer

/vitamin D consumption ( Baugreet, Hamill, Kerry, & McCarthy, 2017 ). These nutrients play a vital role in muscle health. Loss of healthy muscle is associated with physical disability, reduced physical activity, decreased mobility, lower muscle strength, and limited muscle endurance ( Rolland et al., 2008