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Meg G. Hancock, Lindsey Darvin and Nefertiti A. Walker

experience limited opportunities for advancement and lack of access to networks, mentoring, and role models ( Darvin & Sagas, 2017a ; Taylor & Hardin, 2016 ; Taylor, Smith, & Hardin, 2017 ). Within the sport industry, these barriers to leadership and upward career mobility may be attributed to the presence

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Molly Hayes Sauder, Michael Mudrick and Jaime R. DeLuca

. 71). The search committee also admitted that, regardless of the candidate’s credibility, she would probably be in a no-win situation due to being female. The aforementioned examples relate to the concept of intrafirm career mobility, which according to Sicherman and Galor ( 1990 ) is a product of

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Allison B. Smith, Cheryl R. Rode and Robin Hardin

in the sport management academic setting if female faculty members face contrapower harassment from students. The women may not be seen as capable of holding a leadership position, and this would hinder their upward career mobility. The “glass cliff” phenomenon refers to women having their

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Peter von Allmen, Michael Leeds and Julian Malakorn

We add to the literature on migration and earnings by showing how migration affects one particularly highly skilled set of migrants: European hockey players. We examine salary differentials using a sample of newly signed free agents from the 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons. We also apply several new productivity measures that sharpen the specification of the wage equation, especially regarding productivity on defense and special teams play. We find that European players receive a premium relative to otherwise identical Canadian and US-born players. We present evidence that this premium is due to the greater mobility of European players and their resulting access to alternative employment possibilities.

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Merrill J. Melnick

It is argued that the social forces of urbanization, individualism, interpersonal competition, technology, and geographical mobility have brought greater and greater numbers of strangers into people's everyday lives and have made the achievement of primary, social ties with relatives, friends, neighbors, and workmates more difficult. As a result, many are forced to satisfy their needs for sociability in less personal, less intimate, less private ways. It is proposed that sports spectating has emerged as a major urban structure where spectators come together not only to be entertained but to enrich their social psychological lives through the sociable, quasi-intimate relationships available. The changing nature of the sociability experience in America presents sport managers with interesting challenges and opportunities. A number of recommendations are offered for maximizing the gemeinschaft possibilities of sports spectating facilities. By giving greater attention to the individual and communal possibilities of their events, sport managers can increase spectator attendance while rendering an important public service.

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James M. Gladden, Richard L. Irwin and William A. Sutton

Following a decade that produced astonishing player salaries, continued player mobility, widespread corporate involvement, and skyrocketing ticket prices and broadcast rights fees, North American major league professional sport teams enter the 21st century encountering a number of significant challenges. An analysis of the aforementioned trends yields valuable insight into the future of professional team sport management in North America and leads to the identification of a primary concern of team owners and operators, that of managing the franchise's brand equity. With team owners increasingly reaping profits from the long-term appreciation of the team's value while continuing to lose money on a yearly basis, there will be an increased focus on strengthening team brands. This new focus will lead management to build and maintain brand equity through two primary means: the acquisition of assets and the enhancement of customer relationships. Each of these predictions is explained in depth in this paper and examples are provided.

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E. Nicole Melton and George B. Cunningham

The purpose of this qualitative analysis was to explore the work experiences of sport employees who are LGBT, and examine how these individuals negotiate their multiple social identities in a sport context. Considering the growing interest in sport, and sport management in particular, it is important for scholars to gain of better understanding of why people choose to work in the sport industry, and understand how employee identity may influence career decisions and subsequent work experiences. Thus, the researchers only interviewed employees who did not fulfill coaching or player roles, as these individuals could potentially work in other industries. Analysis of the data revealed how working in a sport context may present sexual minorities with certain advantages, such as an opportunity to enhance self-esteem and gain social acceptance. When confronted with unjust treatment because of their sexual orientation, employees used coworker social support and social mobility techniques to cope with these negative situations. Although the employees did not always view their sexual orientation as salient to their identity, they had all disclosed their sexual orientation, to varying degrees, to others in the workplace. Finally, though the participants did not engage in social change activities, some of their supportive coworkers attempted to proactively create a more inclusive work environment. Implications of these findings are discussed and practical suggestions are provided.

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Holly Thorpe and Megan Chawansky

workers due to the unique nature of their work and their related mobilities. The use of the prefix “trans” is meant to highlight the transnational nature of their careers. Broadly, transnationalism refers to “multiple ties and interactions linking people or institutions across the borders of nation

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Jerred Junqi Wang

activities. In Chapter 2, Turpin summarizes on the development of the bicycle industry as automobiles emerged and World War I escalated. Turpin summarizes how automobiles refined the concept of mobility, reshaping the spirit of manhood, and reconstructing traditional ideas of social community. Both trends

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Jessica L. Siegele, Allison B. Smith and Robin Hardin

the sport organizational workforce ( Hardin, Whiteside, & Ash, 2014 ; Whisenant & Mullane, 2007 ). Organizational Barriers Women face challenges in both vertical and lateral career mobility within collegiate athletic administration. Ascension into leadership positions typically requires working in