than those of Grade 4 girls. Figure 1 —Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes/day during physical education (PE), recess, and class time. Table 2 shows the percentage of time children in the study spent in MVPA activity during PE, recess, classroom, and overall school time. Girls spent
Lena Zimmo, Fuad Almudahka, Izzeldin Ibrahim, Mohamed G. Al-kuwari and Abdulaziz Farooq
Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele
,166+ CPM). Accelerometer data were downloaded with ActiLife 6 software (ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL) and were included in the analysis if they wore a minimum of four consecutive days, with at least 8 hr of wear time per day. The moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) scores were computed as the sum
Mia A. Schaumberg, Lynne M. Emmerton, David G. Jenkins, Nicola W. Burton, Xanne A.K. Janse de Jonge and Tina L. Skinner
), general and menstrual health history (n = 5), and self-report physical activity levels (n = 8) were assessed. Physical activity was determined as the total weighted minutes of self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity per week (based on the Active Australia Survey), with vigorous physical
Ken Lodewyk and Lauren McNamara
; Woods et al., 2015 ). Research on differences in these constructs between boys and girls has revealed that boys tend to be higher in physical activity level during recess (e.g., Ridgers et al., 2012 ) especially moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; Woods et al., 2012 , 2015 ). Boys also
Stefanie J.M. Verstraete, Greet M. Cardon, Dirk L.R. De Clercq and Ilse M.M. De Bourdeaudhuij
The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-year health-related physical education intervention in a pretest-posttest design. Sixteen elementary schools (764 pupils, mean age: 11.2 ± 0.7) participated in the study. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n = 8) and the control condition (n = 8). Making use of direct observation data gathered according to SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time), the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity engagement during physical education classes was significantly higher in the intervention condition than in the control condition. Children’s moderate-to-vigorous physical activity engagement during physical education lessons increased with 14% in the intervention condition (from 42 to 56%). No significant effects were found on the accelerometer data. The health-related physical education intervention was found to be promising in promoting physical activity during physical education classes.
Greet Cardon, Stefanie Verstraete, Dirk De Clercq and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
The main goal of the current study was to compare physical activity levels during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. We conducted a preliminary study and found that the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) could be used to register physical activity engagement levels in swimming classes. Thirty-nine classes, involving 8- to 12-year olds, participated in one swimming and one nonswimming physical education class. Classes were videotaped and physical activity levels for 234 students were quantified using SOFIT. Students engaged in more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during swimming classes than during nonswimming classes. As a consequence, we advocate the inclusion of swimming lessons in physical education. Because the average engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was lower than the recommended 50% in 41% of swimming classes and in 77% of the nonswimming classes, however, comprehensive efforts are needed to increase physical activity levels during both types of elementary physical education classes.
Jennifer Faison-Hodge and David L. Porretta
This study compared physical education and recess physical activity levels of elementary school age students with mild mental retardation (MR) and students without disabilities who possessed either high or low cardiorespiratory fitness. For this study, the System for Observing Fitness Instructional Time (SOFIT), a measure of physical activity, was validated for students with mild MR. A significant difference for moderate to vigorous physical activity was obtained between settings. Findings suggest that students with MR and those without disabilities were more active during recess than during physical education. Students with mild MR and those with low cardiorespiratory fitness performed similarly in both the physical education and recess settings.
This study compared moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and students without disabilities during inclusive physical education and recess. Students (7–12 years) wore a uniaxial accelerometer in school for 5 consecutive school days. Results indicated a significant difference between settings, F(1,46) = 15.94,p < .01, partial eta2 = 0.26, observed power = 0.97. Students with and without ASD spent a higher proportion of time in MVPA during physical education than during recess, relative to the amount of time spent in those settings. In addition, structured physical education offers opportunities to increase students’ MVPA engagement.
Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Robert C. Eklund and Brett Reed
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine determinants of teachers’ intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theories of reasoned action, planned behavior, and self-efficacy, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers’ intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy. Using hierarchical regression analyses, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported by accounting for 65% of the variance in intention due to the main effects of attitude and subjective norm, as well as their interaction effects. The role of perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy theory were not supported.
Bik C. Chow, Thomas L. McKenzie and Lobo Louie
Physical activity engagement during physical education is important for many reasons, including developing physical fitness and movement skills and promoting health. Much more is known about physical activity in elementary than secondary schools. We examined physical activity and how it was influenced by instructor-related and environmental characteristics during 238 lessons taught by 65 physical education specialists in 30 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Trained observers used SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) in randomly selected grade 7–12 classes over a 6-month period. Results showed students engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) about 35% of lesson time, a level similar to that found in U.S. elementary schools and short of the U.S. Healthy People 2010 objective of 50% engagement time. Multiple regression analyses found that six potentially modifiable variables contributed to 35% of the variability in lesson MVPA percent.